Illustrations of diabetes. © Shutterstock / Ivelin Radkov
Merdeka.com – Diabetes is a type of disease that is quite a lot suffered by people throughout the world. In a person with diabetes mellitus, the level of sugar in the body is very high. This then makes the body unable to produce insulin or even does not respond to insulin.
Diabetes is a chronic disease. The sign is high levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the body. If the amount continues to increase, glucose will accumulate and cause various organ disorders.
Quoting from halodoc.com, some of the symptoms of diabetes include frequent thirst, increased urination frequency (especially at night), constant hunger, weight loss for no apparent reason, reduced muscle mass, blurred vision, difficult wounds recover, and often experience infections.
If not treated immediately seriously by professionals, diabetes can cause various complications that are quite dangerous and threatening health.
Among the complications of diabetes are fatal life-threatening hazards such as heart attacks and death. The following are 6 diabetes complications that can occur.
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1. Nerve Disorders
The first diabetes complication is a neurological disorder or diabetic neuropathy. In this condition, increased blood sugar levels can cause nerve damage to the body.
Most of these nerve disorders attack the nerve area of the hands and feet. This complication of diabetes causes numbness, or tingling in the fingers and toes. Other symptoms are the onset of pain, tingling, numbness or numbness, to the burning sensation.
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, 10 to 20 percent of people with diabetes experience nerve pain. Nerve damage can also affect mood, causing stress and chronic sleep disorders.
The complications of diabetes in the form of nerve disorders make the feet feel painful when used for activities. In fact, pain can occur due to the hands or feet in contact with other objects.
The danger from this diabetes complication is the deteriorating quality of sufferers. Therefore, it must be treated by a doctor immediately.
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2. Vascular disease
The second complication of diabetes is the onset of vascular disease. The initial process of vascular abnormalities is atherosclerosis, which can occur in all blood vessels.
High blood sugar levels can cause a buildup of fat in the walls of blood vessels. Over time, this condition can lead to complications that inhibit blood circulation, and ultimately increase the risk of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Vascular disease usually occurs more often and occurs earlier in people with diabetes and usually affects the distal artery (below the knee). In diabetes, peripheral vascular disease is usually diagnosed late when it reaches phase IV.
In the official website of the American Heart Association (AHA), it is stated that people with diabetes are four times more likely to die of heart disease than those who have no history of diabetes. AHA even considers diabetes as one of the seven main risk factors causing cardiovascular disease.
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3. Coronary Heart Disease
The third complication of diabetes is coronary heart disease. Based on epidemiological studies, diabetes is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Coronary atheroscierosis is found in 50-70% of diabetics.
As a result of coronary disorders arising from coronary insufficiency or angina pectoris (paroxysmal chest pain as well as crushed heavy objects felt in the lower jaw, shoulder, arm to wrist).
This occurs when you are active or emotional, and will subside after resting or getting sublingual nitrates. The most serious consequence is myocardial infarction, where pain persists and becomes more intense and does not subside with nitrates.
However, these symptoms may also not occur in diabetics so it needs more careful attention.
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4. Eye Damage
The fourth complication of diabetes is eye damage. Initially, diabetics will experience blurred vision for several days or weeks. And this will stop or disappear when blood sugar levels return to normal.
But when blood sugar levels continue to rise, small blood vessels in the back of the eye can be damaged. Damage to the blood vessels of the eye can even be started since prediabetes, which is when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes.
Damaged blood vessels then weaken the nerve, causing swelling and filled with fluid. In addition, these blood vessels can also experience bleeding in the middle of the eye. This can trigger the growth of scar tissue or cause high pressure in your eyes.
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5. Kidney Damage
The fifth complication of diabetes is kidney damage. The kidneys basically function to filter waste from the blood. In people with diabetes, uncontrolled blood sugar levels can interfere with blood vessels in the kidneys. This then causes damage that leads to kidney disease. In the medical world, this complication of diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of nephropathy or terminal kidney failure. Specific kidney damage in diabetics results in changes in filter function, so large molecules such as protein can pass into the urine (eg, Albuminuria).
As a result of diabetic nephropathy, progressive kidney failure can occur. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by persistent proteinuri (> 0.5 g / 24 hours), starch retinoes and hypertension. Thus the preventive efforts on nephropathy are metabolic control and blood pressure control.
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The sixth complication of diabetes is stroke. Cerebral atherosclerosis is the second most common cause of mortality in diabetics.
About one third of stroke sufferers also suffer from diabetes. Strokes occur more often and with a more serious prognosis for diabetics.
As a result of reduced flow of the internal carotid atria and vertebral arteries arises neurological disorders due to ischemia, in the form of:
- Pusing, syncope
- Hemiplegia: partial or total
- Sensory and motor aphasia