We talked to a virologist.
On what strains will circulate this year, "KP" in Ukraine "told the virologist, head of the department of respiratory and other viral infections of the State Institution" Institute of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. L.V. Gromashevsky AMS of Ukraine "Alla Mironenko.
The peak will come to the New Year
What strains of the virus go to Ukraine
Virology Alla Mironenko.
Photo: Jansson Oscar
– In the next season, we are waiting for A (H3N2) strain A / Singapore. Last season he was in Ukraine, but very weak. And in the United States, the same strain caused a large-scale epidemic with fatal outcomes among the elderly. But the strain is part of the vaccine, and the vaccine will be able to protect.
Three other strains will come to Ukraine, which can also take part in the epidemic, but will not be the main ones: this is A (H1N1) "Michigan", a descendant of the pandemic, which in 2009 caused a large-scale epidemic. Then 1127 people died.
The third strain – In / "Colorado". For us it is new. This strain originated from the old B / Brisbane, Victorian line, but it is fundamentally different, and if a person was sick B / Brisbane, which dominated us last season, it does not give him protection from B / Colorado. And one more strain – B / Phuket, but we do not think that it will prevail.
What complications threaten the strains that will come this season? Can there be deaths
– Yes, unfortunately, there may be deaths. But, firstly, in the concept of "intensity" we put the number of cases, but the number of severe forms and the number of complications is a separate concept. So these viruses can cause pneumonia in the elderly – pneumonia. Well, plus more bronchitis, sinusitis. In the elderly, the flu can lead to an exacerbation of chronic diseases.
When to wait for an epidemic
– The first cases can be registered already in November. But in November, as a rule, we never have a full-scale epidemic. When was a pandemic – yes, but it was a new virus, radically new for everyone. Therefore, there were early onset and high incidence. And since circulation usually begins in November, even the first imported cases are recorded in early November, but these viruses do not receive such widespread distribution. And in December there is a steady circulation, from the beginning of December it can with an increasing effect, that is, the virus is spreading exponentially. One sick, two and more, and then everyone else infects, so in general the epidemic develops, the peak of the epidemic occurs. Revitalization of influenza is expected by the New Year. The peak of the epidemic will be in the second half of January – the beginning of February.
Vaccinated in November
When is the best time to get vaccinated against flu? Is it too late now
– No, not too late. All November can be instilled. For our climate zone, October and November are the optimal months for vaccination. WHO permits to be vaccinated even during the epidemic period, but it must be remembered that it takes time to develop immunity. For an adult, 10 days is two weeks for protective antibodies to form. If a person is vaccinated, travels in transport, sits at school, he may, with a high degree of probability, become infected on the third day after vaccination, not because it is not effective, but because the process has not yet been completed, to generate antibodies.
What vaccines can be considered effective
– We have them registered quite a bit. I know that Vaxigripp is already for sale. Influvac is registered, but we don’t see it on the market. There is a Korean Jishi Flu vaccine. We have registered only drugs from inactivated or killed viruses or from their fragments, that is, they can not cause illness, they do not cause side effects, millions, billions of doses are used in the world, and in general everyone is happy.
For adults and for children one vaccine
– Yes. Vaccine – total. The dose for an adult and a child over three years old is half a milliliter. That is, it is standard in the syringe, ready for use. But if someone decided to send their children to the garden, and they are not yet three years old, I strongly recommend to vaccinate them against the flu. Because the first meeting of a small child with the flu, as a rule, ends with pneumonia for him. Small children up to three years old are vaccinated twice in half doses, that is, 0.25 milliliters, say, today, then after 4 weeks another 0.25, because the immune system in young children is not yet complete, not fully matured. If the child has not had the flu and has never been vaccinated, he is being vaccinated twice in half doses, and the rest are vaccinated with a full dose of half a milliliter – that is enough.
Is it enough for adults to take root once
– Yes, once a year.
– How is flu different from ARVI?
– The onset of the flu is not the same as that of the other respiratory infections. Other respiratory infections can have a sore throat, dry cough or a runny nose, or the temperature may rise after two days, or it may not. And with the flu, on the contrary, first the temperature rises, the headache may be aching muscles or joints.
To this topic
Will preserve the health of both mother and child
– They say that pregnant women cannot be vaccinated. But abroad, on the contrary, are vaccinated? What better way to do?
– In fact, pregnant women can not be vaccinated with live vaccines, but we have live vaccines and are not registered. And inactivated drugs are absolutely harmless. Generally abroad in any trimester vaccinated.
The Japanese conducted a study. They took blood from a newborn and took blood from a parturient woman when she was vaccinated before delivery, and saw that the level of antibodies in the newborn and the parturient woman was the same. That is, a babe who is protected from the flu is born, who has been carrying these antibodies for half a year.
A baby can be vaccinated with six months. But we are not used to doing this in our country, we have a maximum isolation mode for children up to one year old, because the immune system is not yet trained. And Americans are vaccinated in 6 months.
– Do you think that you need to move away from this practice and inculcate up to six months, as in other countries?
– Probably. It is best to instill those adults who have contact with this child, parents, grandparents, and especially brothers, sisters who attend school or kindergarten. If everything is vaccinated around, then you can vaccinate later when he goes to the children's team. In 2010, in Argentina, a large enterprise for the production of vaccines was built for state money and they began to vaccinate all pregnant women free of charge, regardless of the gestational age. It turned out that they reduced the death rate among newborns by half. And we are afraid even to be vaccinated in the 2-3rd trimester.