American researchers have invented a pill that could replace insulin injections in diabetic patients. Tested on pigs, this drug has provided insulin in sufficient quantities to reduce the blood sugar of patients.
When it comes to taking a medicine, the
The function of the stomach is to digest the foods chewed into the mouth and brought by the esophagus. Digestion in the stomach lasts between 3 and 7 hours thanks to the presence of digestive enzymes (proteases such as pepsin) … "data-image =" https: //fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences. com / buildsv6 / images / midioriginal / 8/5/4 / 854186b872_50035482_stomach-imageshack.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-stomach-6857 / "data-more =" Read more "> and the . This is the case of the Insulin Structure
It is composed of two peptide chains (A and B, respectively 21 and 30 amino acids) interconnected by two disulfide bridges at cysteine residues.
Function of … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/4/5/84536550b6_50034167_insuline-nasa.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / medicine-insulin-173 / "data-more =" Read more "> and many other drugs that are injected into the bloodstream. For the who get injections every day, an oral medication would facilitate their treatment and improve their daily lives.
In this study published in, researchers from MIT, Brigham and Women's Hospital, from Harvard and Novo Nordisk, have created a capsule that could change the lives of these patients. To prevent insulin from being released into the stomach where it may be degraded by acids , the authors imagined a capsule with a needle.
The tip of the needle is formed oflyophilized and compressed, thanks to a process already used for other drugs. A statement from MIT explains how this revolutionary pill works: "In the capsule, the needle is fixed to a compressed spring held in place by a disk of Carbohydrates, simple sugars, complex sugars, …" data-image = "https: //fr.cdn.v5.futura- sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2/8/4/28416ba187_98602_sucre-blanc-roux.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / nutrition-sugar-16105 / "data-more =" Read More " > . When the capsule is swallowed, water in the stomach dissolves the sugar disc, releases the spring and injects the needle into the stomach wall. "
As the stomach wall has no sensory receptors for the
IUCN Conservation Status: NT Near Threatened
Description … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/5/4/e549315153_50036038_panthere-de-perse-021jpg.jpg "data- url = "/ planet / definitions / zoology-leopard-8023 /" data-more = "Read more"> . This African has a carapace that forms a kind of dome, which allows it to get back to the place if it rolls.
Oral treatment with an innovative capsule
Just like thescientists have created a capsule whose shape allows it to reorient itself in the right position. It clings to the wall of the stomach, with the needle placed on the right side. Thus, even if the person moves or if the stomach starts to move, the capsule is in the right direction. To better visualize this phenomenon, you can watch the video below.
Video presentation of the capsule that delivers drugs. You can view it with French subtitles (turn on subtitles and choose Settings / Subtitles / Translate automatically / French). © Diana Saville
Then, once the capsule is placed on the wall of the stomach, the needle injects insulin. According to this study, insulin is delivered in one hour into the blood. The researchers tested their capsule on pigs and showed that it can inject a dose of 5 mg insulin, the amount often needed by a patient withof type 2. The rest of the capsule, formed of polymers This biodegradation is translated by the chemical simplification and … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images /midioriginal/a/c/0/ac06fd9439_50035687_vaisselle-biodegradable-luxomedia-cc-nc-2.jpg "data-url =" / planet / definitions / sustainable-development-biodegradable-7311 / "data-more =" Read more "> and components in Steel … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/5/f/15fc3fb201_111712_steel-inoxydable-inox.jpg " data-url = "/ sciences / definitions / chemistry-steel-stainless-16677 /" data-more = "Read more"> , continues its journey in the digestive tract. According to the authors, there would be no side effects.
Our motivation is to make it easier for patients to take medication, especially those requiring an injection
This innovative capsule could be used to administer drugs other than insulin, such as immunosuppressive therapy, essential throughout the life of the transplant, involves the combination of several drugs. Immunosuppression protocols vary according to the immunological status of … "data-url =" / health / definitions / medicine-treatment-immunosuppressant-4026 / "data-more =" Read more ">. This is explained by Giovanni Traverso, one of the authors, in a : "Our motivation is to make it easier for patients to take medication, especially those who need an injection. "
What you must remember
- US researchers have created an innovative capsule to deliver insulin to the stomach and avoid injections.
- The capsule includes a needle with compressed insulin.
- Inspired by the shape of a turtle, it is positioned in the stomach in the right direction, with the needle ready to inject insulin into the wall.
- This capsule could be used to deliver drugs other than insulin.
Diabetes: soon an insulin pill instead of injections?
Article published on June 27, 2018
Harvard researchers offer an insulin formulation as an oral treatment to avoid the daily injections that diabetics undergo. Two problems had to be solved: the sensitivity of insulin to gastric acidity and its poor PHYSIOLOGY Penetration of a substance from outside into a living organism. Intestinal absorption: the passage of nutrients from … "data-url =" / health / definitions / medicine-absorption-2910 / "data-more =" Read more ">intestinal.
For millions of people suffering from
Hormones are used to transmit a chemical signal: they exert an action to … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/8/b /f8bca49d5d_98004_ths-hormone-menopause.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / medecine-hormone-751 / "data-more =" Read more "> . Administered by a pump or injections under the skin, insulin therapy aims to control the patients. These repeated injections have an impact on their quality of life and interfere with their activities. And if they do not follow their treatment properly, patients are exposed to serious complications.
Several teams are looking for ways to administer insulin orally; alead by even started in the United States. Oral insulin is problematic because the molecule does not appreciate the acidity of the stomach and is poorly absorbed by the intestine. An article published in describes an oral treatment that could revolutionize the lives of patients.
Insulin must pass the acidity of the stomach and the intestinal barrier
Harvard researchers propose to transport the
Principle and operation of the refrigerator
The … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4/5/1/451227e9c2_50037798_frigidaire-tm-02.jpg "data-url = "/ home / definitions / home-fridge-11142 /" data-more = "Read more"> . In the more alkaline intestine, the drug envelope, consisting of , dissolves and releases the containing insulin, which must still pass into the blood.
Enzymes are most often proteins, and therefore consist of amino acid chains. Sometimes enzymatic activities are carried by ARNs, and in this case are called … "data-image =" https://en.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2 /2/4/2247291fc5_50034232_enzyme-site-actif.jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / chemistry-enzyme-710 / "data-more =" Read more "> have the function of degrading the roles of proteins
Proteins can perform a variety of functions within the cell or organism.
They may have:
a structural role (such as actin or tubulin which … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4/6/e/46e94f9da7_50034188_actine -thomas-splettstoesser-cc.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-protein-237 / "data-more =" Read more "> in Amino acid structure
Their name comes from the fact that they have an amine function (NH2) and a carboxylic acid function (COOH). They … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/0/8/d/08dba8331a_50034106_acide-amine-dr-02.jpg "data- url = "/ health / definitions / biology-acid-amine-8 /" data-more = "Read more"> smaller ones. " Insulin in its ionic solution would remain stable. In addition, the formulation that uses choline and geranic acid has already shown its effectiveness to pass two barriers: the intestinal and tight junctions of intestinal cells, known to hinder the passage of large molecules such as insulin. Here in rats, this insulin was able to reduce their glucose structure
Of chemical formula C6H12O6, glucose is in cyclic form (pyranose). It has isomers, that is to say molecules that have the same chemical formula (this is the case … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com /buildsv6/images/midioriginal/6/8/b/68bd6b2dfc_50034235_glucose-dp.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-glucose-736 / "data-more =" Read more "> blood. It remains to test this formulation in other animals, then during possible clinical trials in humans.
uPill, the ultrasound pill to prevent bites
Article by Janlou Chaput published on June 30, 2012
To avoid the discomfort of the daily punctures that some patients have to undergo, this may be the solution of the future: an Ultrasound and Animal Pill
On the other hand, many vertebrates … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2/1/d/21d6c9b153_75502_dolphin.jpg "data-url = "/ sciences / definitions / physics-ultrasound-14915 /" data-more = "Read more"> named uPill. Such a system would accelerate the absorption of active ingredients and drugs
There are some active ingredients in some … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/c/c/eccc00be33_78221_principe-actifjpg.jpg " data-url = "/ health / definitions / medicine-active-principle-15081 /" data-more = "Read more"> during the and its distribution to the regions to be healed, which was until then the limiting factor of the classic seals.
This is an announcement that could please people. They inject daily intravenously specific amounts of insulin to regulate their and have to endure the discomfort and that such manipulation entails.
For a long time, scientists have been trying to develop new systems to provide a better quality of life for these patients. Unfortunately, thewhen swallowed, is not absorbed quickly enough by the digestive system and does not penetrate tissues within a reasonable time. The concept has been abandoned and diabetics still have no choice but to use syringes.
In recent years, we have discovered the interest of patches towhich deliver a drug ten times more effectively through the skin. The sound waves can suffer … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/a/f/5/af5c4016ac_85974_onde-sonore.jpg "data -url = "/ sciences / definitions / physics-wave-sound-15526 /" data-more = "Read more"> slightly heat the cells and further permeabilize the membranes, allowing the active molecule to integrate target cells.
Pills will replace bites
It is from this same concept that researchers from
To any acid corresponds a conjugate base … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/b/2/8/b28a48dafa_50034238_acide-base-fs. jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / chemistry-acid-750 / "data-more =" Read more "> and is eliminated by natural means.
One of the main novelties of this discovery is the miniaturization of the process. The inventors even claim to be developing the world's smallest ultrasound system. They are hoping to launch uPill in 2 years, but are now starting animal testing to make sure their prototype is safe. Its safety should then be verified in humans and its proven effectiveness.
There is still a problem: the pill could be sold around 20 to 30 dollars each (16 to 24 euros) but is in theory reusable. The researchers themselves doubt the popularity of their device at such a cost, especially for people who need it every day. Further efforts will be needed to reduce tariffs and ensure that uPill eventually replaces.