American researchers have invented a pill that could replace insulin injections in diabetic patients. Tested on pigs, this drug has provided insulin in sufficient quantities to reduce the blood sugar of patients.

When it comes to taking a medicine, the oral often appears as the simplest way. But some The so-called simple covalent bond … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/d/0/e/d0e3dc7e1e_76472_molecule.jpg "data- url = "/ sciences / definitions / chemistry-molecule-783 /" data-more = "Read more">molecules do not survive the passage in the Function of the stomach
The function of the stomach is to digest the foods chewed into the mouth and brought by the esophagus. Digestion in the stomach lasts between 3 and 7 hours thanks to the presence of digestive enzymes (proteases such as pepsin) … "data-image =" https: //fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences. com / buildsv6 / images / midioriginal / 8/5/4 / 854186b872_50035482_stomach-imageshack.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-stomach-6857 / "data-more =" Read more ">stomach and the digestive tract. This is the case of the Insulin Structure
It is composed of two peptide chains (A and B, respectively 21 and 30 amino acids) interconnected by two disulfide bridges at cysteine ​​residues.
Function of … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/4/5/84536550b6_50034167_insuline-nasa.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / medicine-insulin-173 / "data-more =" Read more ">insulin and many other drugs that are injected into the bloodstream. For the diabetics who get injections every day, an oral medication would facilitate their treatment and improve their daily lives.

In this study published in Science, researchers from MIT, Brigham and Women's Hospital, from Harvard and Novo Nordisk, have created a capsule that could change the lives of these patients. To prevent insulin from being released into the stomach where it may be degraded by acids gastric, the authors imagined a capsule with a needle.

The tip of the needle is formed ofinsulin lyophilized and compressed, thanks to a process already used for other drugs. A statement from MIT explains how this revolutionary pill works: "In the capsule, the needle is fixed to a compressed spring held in place by a disk of Carbohydrates, simple sugars, complex sugars, …" data-image = "https: //fr.cdn.v5.futura- sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2/8/4/28416ba187_98602_sucre-blanc-roux.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / nutrition-sugar-16105 / "data-more =" Read More " >sugar. When the capsule is swallowed, water in the stomach dissolves the sugar disc, releases the spring and injects the needle into the stomach wall. "

As the stomach wall has no sensory receptors for the painit may be thought that patients should not feel the injection. But how to make sure that the capsule is positioned correctly, with the needle ready to inject insulin into the wall of the stomach? For this, the researchers were inspired by the shape of an animal: the turtle Order: CarnivoraFamily: FelidaeGenre: PantheraSize: 1.00 to 1.90 m (height at the withers 0.50 to 0.80 m and length of the tail 1.00 m) Weight: 30 to 90 kgLongevity: 20 years
IUCN Conservation Status: NT Near Threatened
Description … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/5/4/e549315153_50036038_panthere-de-perse-021jpg.jpg "data- url = "/ planet / definitions / zoology-leopard-8023 /" data-more = "Read more">leopard. This tortoise African has a carapace that forms a kind of dome, which allows it to get back to the place if it rolls.

Oral treatment with an innovative capsule

Just like the tortoisescientists have created a capsule whose shape allows it to reorient itself in the right position. It clings to the wall of the stomach, with the needle placed on the right side. Thus, even if the person moves or if the stomach starts to move, the capsule is in the right direction. To better visualize this phenomenon, you can watch the video below.

Video presentation of the capsule that delivers drugs. You can view it with French subtitles (turn on subtitles and choose Settings / Subtitles / Translate automatically / French). © Diana Saville

Then, once the capsule is placed on the wall of the stomach, the needle injects insulin. According to this study, insulin is delivered in one hour into the blood. The researchers tested their capsule on pigs and showed that it can inject a dose of 5 mg insulin, the amount often needed by a patient with diabetes of type 2. The rest of the capsule, formed of polymers This biodegradation is translated by the chemical simplification and … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images /midioriginal/a/c/0/ac06fd9439_50035687_vaisselle-biodegradable-luxomedia-cc-nc-2.jpg "data-url =" / planet / definitions / sustainable-development-biodegradable-7311 / "data-more =" Read more ">biodegradable and components in Steel … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/5/f/15fc3fb201_111712_steel-inoxydable-inox.jpg " data-url = "/ sciences / definitions / chemistry-steel-stainless-16677 /" data-more = "Read more">stainless steel, continues its journey in the digestive tract. According to the authors, there would be no side effects.

"

Our motivation is to make it easier for patients to take medication, especially those requiring an injection

This innovative capsule could be used to administer drugs other than insulin, such as immunosuppressive therapy, essential throughout the life of the transplant, involves the combination of several drugs. Immunosuppression protocols vary according to the immunological status of … "data-url =" / health / definitions / medicine-treatment-immunosuppressant-4026 / "data-more =" Read more ">immunosuppressive treatments. This is explained by Giovanni Traverso, one of the authors, in a MIT release : "Our motivation is to make it easier for patients to take medication, especially those who need an injection. "

What you must remember

  • US researchers have created an innovative capsule to deliver insulin to the stomach and avoid injections.
  • The capsule includes a needle with compressed insulin.
  • Inspired by the shape of a turtle, it is positioned in the stomach in the right direction, with the needle ready to inject insulin into the wall.
  • This capsule could be used to deliver drugs other than insulin.

Diabetes: soon an insulin pill instead of injections?

Article published on June 27, 2018

Harvard researchers offer an insulin formulation as an oral treatment to avoid the daily injections that diabetics undergo. Two problems had to be solved: the sensitivity of insulin to gastric acidity and its poor PHYSIOLOGY Penetration of a substance from outside into a living organism. Intestinal absorption: the passage of nutrients from … "data-url =" / health / definitions / medicine-absorption-2910 / "data-more =" Read more ">absorption intestinal.

For millions of people suffering from type 1 diabetesdaily injections of insulin are essential because their body does not produce this peptide, lipid and steroid hormones
Hormones are used to transmit a chemical signal: they exert an action to … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/8/b /f8bca49d5d_98004_ths-hormone-menopause.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / medecine-hormone-751 / "data-more =" Read more ">hormone. Administered by a pump or injections under the skin, insulin therapy aims to control the glucose patients. These repeated injections have an impact on their quality of life and interfere with their activities. And if they do not follow their treatment properly, patients are exposed to serious complications.

Several teams are looking for ways to administer insulin orally; a clinical test lead by Oramed Pharmaceuticals even started in the United States. Oral insulin is problematic because the molecule does not appreciate the acidity of the stomach and is poorly absorbed by the intestine. An article published in PNAS describes an oral treatment that could revolutionize the lives of patients.

Insulin must pass the acidity of the stomach and the intestinal barrier

Harvard researchers propose to transport theinsulin in an ionic solution containing choline and geranic acid, all included in a capsule resistant to acidity. This presentation is stored for two months at room temperature and four months at Invented in 1876 by Carl von Linde
Principle and operation of the refrigerator
The … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4/5/1/451227e9c2_50037798_frigidaire-tm-02.jpg "data-url = "/ home / definitions / home-fridge-11142 /" data-more = "Read more">fridge. In the more alkaline intestine, the drug envelope, consisting of polymers, dissolves and releases the liquid containing insulin, which must still pass into the blood.

In one Harvard release, Amrita Banerjee, lead author of this research, explained that "When a protein molecule such as insulin enters the intestine, many enzyme structures
Enzymes are most often proteins, and therefore consist of amino acid chains. Sometimes enzymatic activities are carried by ARNs, and in this case are called … "data-image =" https://en.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2 /2/4/2247291fc5_50034232_enzyme-site-actif.jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / chemistry-enzyme-710 / "data-more =" Read more ">enzymes have the function of degrading the roles of proteins
Proteins can perform a variety of functions within the cell or organism.
They may have:
a structural role (such as actin or tubulin which … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4/6/e/46e94f9da7_50034188_actine -thomas-splettstoesser-cc.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-protein-237 / "data-more =" Read more ">protein in Amino acid structure
Their name comes from the fact that they have an amine function (NH2) and a carboxylic acid function (COOH). They … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/0/8/d/08dba8331a_50034106_acide-amine-dr-02.jpg "data- url = "/ health / definitions / biology-acid-amine-8 /" data-more = "Read more">amino acids smaller ones. "
Insulin in its ionic solution would remain stable. In addition, the formulation that uses choline and geranic acid has already shown its effectiveness to pass two barriers: the mucus intestinal and tight junctions of intestinal cells, known to hinder the passage of large molecules such as insulin. Here in rats, this insulin was able to reduce their glucose structure
Of chemical formula C6H12O6, glucose is in cyclic form (pyranose). It has isomers, that is to say molecules that have the same chemical formula (this is the case … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com /buildsv6/images/midioriginal/6/8/b/68bd6b2dfc_50034235_glucose-dp.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-glucose-736 / "data-more =" Read more ">glucose blood. It remains to test this formulation in other animals, then during possible clinical trials in humans.

uPill, the ultrasound pill to prevent bites

Article by Janlou Chaput published on June 30, 2012

To avoid the discomfort of the daily punctures that some patients have to undergo, this may be the solution of the future: an Ultrasound and Animal Pill
On the other hand, many vertebrates … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2/1/d/21d6c9b153_75502_dolphin.jpg "data-url = "/ sciences / definitions / physics-ultrasound-14915 /" data-more = "Read more">ultrasonic named uPill. Such a system would accelerate the absorption of active ingredients and drugs
There are some active ingredients in some … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/c/c/eccc00be33_78221_principe-actifjpg.jpg " data-url = "/ health / definitions / medicine-active-principle-15081 /" data-more = "Read more">active ingredient during the digestion and its distribution to the regions to be healed, which was until then the limiting factor of the classic seals.

This is an announcement that could please people diabetics. They inject daily intravenously specific amounts of insulin to regulate their glucose and have to endure the discomfort and pain that such manipulation entails.

For a long time, scientists have been trying to develop new systems to provide a better quality of life for these patients. Unfortunately, theinsulinwhen swallowed, is not absorbed quickly enough by the digestive system and does not penetrate tissues within a reasonable time. The concept has been abandoned and diabetics still have no choice but to use syringes.

In recent years, we have discovered the interest of patches to ultrasonic which deliver a drug ten times more effectively through the skin. The sound waves can suffer … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/a/f/5/af5c4016ac_85974_onde-sonore.jpg "data -url = "/ sciences / definitions / physics-wave-sound-15526 /" data-more = "Read more">sound waves slightly heat the cells and further permeabilize the membranes, allowing the active molecule to integrate cytoplasm target cells.

Pills will replace bites

It is from this same concept that researchers from MIT, in collaboration with the company ZetrOZ specialized in medical equipment, have developed uPill, a pill that emits ultrasound and facilitates the digestive absorption of drugs. The seal would be covered with the active substance and the ultrasound would be triggered once the device swallowed. The pill is designed to resist digestive juices Acid and conjugate base
To any acid corresponds a conjugate base … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/b/2/8/b28a48dafa_50034238_acide-base-fs. jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / chemistry-acid-750 / "data-more =" Read more ">acids and is eliminated by natural means.

One of the main novelties of this discovery is the miniaturization of the process. The inventors even claim to be developing the world's smallest ultrasound system. They are hoping to launch uPill in 2 years, but are now starting animal testing to make sure their prototype is safe. Its safety should then be verified in humans and its proven effectiveness.

There is still a problem: the pill could be sold around 20 to 30 dollars each (16 to 24 euros) but is in theory reusable. The researchers themselves doubt the popularity of their device at such a cost, especially for people who need it every day. Further efforts will be needed to reduce tariffs and ensure that uPill eventually replaces bites.

Interested in what you just read?

Subscribe to the newsletter The daily : our latest news of the day.

It will interest you too

Venom to treat diabetes, obesity and allergies In the south of Belgium, a research team is working on a particular topic. By using venom collected from wild animals, scientists hope to develop treatments against diabetes, allergies or obesity. The Euronews channel tells us more about this episode of Futuris.

.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.