The latest clinical trial of an HIV vaccine has been stopped due to disappointing results, adding to the many other experimental HIV vaccines that have failed in recent decades. Janssen, the vaccine division of Johnson & Johnson, announced this week that they were ending the Mosaico trial, which involved 3,900 participants across North America, South America and Europe.
The preliminary data analysis showed that the vaccine was safe, but it was unable to prevent more HIV infections than a placebo. This has caused researchers to take a step back, as it will take some time before new vaccines can be tested for safety and efficacy.
When HIV was first discovered in the 1980s, it was thought that a vaccine could be developed relatively quickly, but it soon became clear how difficult it was to achieve this. HIV is known to mutate quickly, making it difficult to create a vaccine that can effectively protect against it. In addition, there are many different subtypes of HIV, creating ‘reservoirs’ in the body that can remain dormant for years.
It is estimated that HIV infects around 1.5 million people each year and causes 650,000 deaths. An effective HIV vaccine would be a great benefit for countries where treatments are not accessible or not provided adequately. Despite the recent negative result, interest in creating a vaccine remains high.
Experts are now considering changing their approach, such as using messenger RNA vaccines. Though trials are underway, it will take some time before clinical trials can verify the effectiveness of the new approach.
The search for a cure for HIV continues to be a long and difficult journey, and despite decades of research and development, the HIV vaccine remains elusive. In the past few years, there have been several promising candidates, but to date, none have been successful in clinical trials. This has been a major setback for the scientific community, as a successful HIV vaccine could have a major impact on global public health.
The most recent failure of an HIV vaccine candidate came in 2019 when the National Institutes of Health (NIH) halted a clinical trial of a promising vaccine candidate due to safety concerns. The vaccine, called HVTN 702, was being tested in South Africa and had been shown to be effective in early clinical trials. However, the trial was stopped after an independent review board found that the vaccine was not providing any additional protection against HIV infection compared to the placebo.
This is not the first time that a promising HIV vaccine candidate has failed in clinical trials. In 2009, a vaccine known as RV144 was tested in Thailand, but it also failed to provide any additional protection against HIV infection. In 2016, a vaccine known as PAVE 100 was tested in South Africa, but it also failed to provide any additional protection against HIV infection.
Despite these setbacks, researchers remain hopeful that a successful HIV vaccine will be developed in the near future. In the meantime, researchers are continuing to work on developing new HIV vaccine candidates and testing them in clinical trials. Additionally, researchers are also exploring other potential treatments for HIV, such as gene therapies and antibody treatments.
It is clear that the search for an HIV vaccine is still ongoing, and that it is likely to be a long and difficult journey. However, with continued research and development, it is possible that a successful HIV vaccine may eventually be developed. Until then, researchers will continue to work hard to find a way to end the HIV epidemic.