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Thank you for your subscription. Let's check your own e-mail for subscription confirmation. MOSCOW, September 20 (Itar-Tass) – News. American molecular biologists for the first time could force the stem cells to turn into a miniature analogue of the esophagus. This shows a path for his recovery after the disease, cancer or accidents, according to an article published in the journal Cell Stem Cell.
Biologists have cherished the heart from reprogrammed stem cells. "These miniature organs will support us not only to comprehend that there are unequal natural defects in the development of the esophagus and unequal autoimmune diseases and cancer, but they will also allow cultivating cell cultures and manners for" repairing "the esophagus in separate patients," – said Jim Wells (Jim Wells) from the University of Cincinnati (USA).
Over the last two decades, biologists have learned to transform stem cells into bone, muscle, skin and febrile matter. Takovskie matter can become a "spare part" in case of damage to the body or a medicine for a number of degenerative diseases. To the model, the culture of "stem" neurons can become a panacea for the treatment of the demented Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and some of their versions will support returning lost limbs or organs.
In particular, in April 2012, scientists were able to wrap stem cells in hair follicles and successfully transplanted them to the throat of "bald" mice. Three years ago, Japanese scientists concentrated full copies of unequal organs, such as kidneys or liver, from stem cells, and also nurtured a rat's leg and "hooked" it to the body of a rodent. All these experiments are conducted as long as they are animal, but in the shortest possible time similar experiments will occur on human cells.
Wells and his colleagues added to the number of these organs and a full-fledged picture of the esophagus, experimenting with unequal varieties of "reprogrammed" stem cells and embryos of rodents and croaks.
Scientists have created an initial non-real mouse embryo from stem cells
Despite the relatively simple design, scientists for a long time could not force the stem cells to turn into an analogue of the manufactories of the esophagus, as if it were hampered by the fact that the same calves are used for the "construction" of the trachea.
The authors of the article found out that this can be avoided by monitoring which genes were connected and disconnected during the development of the esophagus and trachea in the fetuses of animals. It turned out that the key role in this process was played by the Sox2 gene – one of four DNA sections, which are now used by biologists for "reprogramming" of stem cells.
Scientists cherished the first fake leg of a rat
As if it turned out, the activity of this gene is determined by the fact that the young man manufactories are turning "billets" of the esophagus and trachea inside the embryos of croakers and mice. To the sample, if Sox2 was included, then they formed the matter of the digestive system, and when it was turned off, they became the part of the respiratory organs.
Armed with this idea, Wells and his colleagues were able to wrap a bundle of stem cells into a miniature analogue of the esophagus, cultivating them in a person in the chemical sphere that contributed to the inclusion of Sox2 and a number of other genes, for an exemplary two months.
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Such mini-organs, as the scientists emphasize, are not suitable for implantation into the human body, but they can be used to study the fact that unequal mutations act on the development of the esophagus, and the production of "patches" for the treatment of separate patients using their own stem cells.
Both, according to biologists, will save dozens of lives and will allow to abandon the use of potentially dangerous implants on the basis of polymeric skeletons, which are now sown by the "adult" cells of the esophagus and inserted into the patients' body.