JD is a long term illness. With insulin administration and other management activities, these children can lead active and healthy lives.
Par le Dr Ruchi Parikh
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the body cannot produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin normally, resulting in abnormally high blood sugar or blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) seen in children and young adults was previously called juvenile diabetes. T1D, a less common form, is seen in about 5-10% of people with diabetes.
The hormone “insulin” produced by beta cells in the pancreas helps move glucose around the body’s cells and tissues for use as fuel or energy. JD is an autoimmune disease in which beta cells lose their ability to produce insulin for the maintenance and function of BG. This happens when the body’s immune system produces antibodies that destroy beta cells after a trigger received from certain environmental factors (like a virus). Without insulin, blood sugar builds up in the bloodstream because it cannot get into cells. This high blood sugar can damage the body and cause symptoms and complications of diabetes. It is not hereditary, as 90% of people have no family member or relative with this disease. But certain genetic factors can predispose a person to developing DD. It is not caused by any diet or lifestyle.
This process can take months or years. Symptoms can develop within a few weeks / months or appear suddenly. Some symptoms are subtle and similar to other health problems. They understand:
– Increased thirst.
– Frequent urination (bedwetting in a clean child) Extreme hunger associated with weight loss Loss of appetite later.
– Blurred vision.
– Nausea Vomiting.
– Abdominal pain.
– Irritability, mood swings.
– Frequent infections of the skin, urinary tract or vagina.
– Dry mouth and dehydration.
– Fruity breath odor.
There is no prevention or treatment for DD. Management includes multidisciplinary teamwork between the child, parents, the health care team (pediatrician, pediatric endocrinologist, qualified nutritionist, diabetes educator or counselor), other family members, teachers and friends.
1) Pancreatic insulin should be replaced with daily insulin injections or an insulin pump to keep the blood sugar level in the normal range.
2) Meal planning (timing, carbohydrate counting) to maintain target blood sugar levels. Since DD is not caused by diet, children should continue to eat a healthy and balanced diet that will promote their growth and development. A well-trained nutritionist can provide the correct advice.
3) Regular home monitoring of blood sugar.
4) Good amount of sleep and daily exercise. Monitor blood sugar levels before, during and after activity and plan meals / insulin accordingly.
5) Identify signs of high or low blood sugar and manage them appropriately.
6) Tailored treatment plan for severe illness or low blood sugar.
– Regular follow-up with healthcare teams to manage daily blood sugar levels within a safe range, screen for other autoimmune diseases and monitor / prevent complications (DD can affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and Blood vessels).
– JD is a long term illness. With insulin administration and other management activities, these children can lead active and healthy lives.
– Parents should treat their child like a normal child, as managing diabetes is a part of their daily life.
– Children must always carry an identity card or bracelet with the state and emergency numbers mentioned.
– Families should be encouraged to participate in diabetes camps and support groups.
(The author is a consultant in pediatric endocrinology. SRCC Hospital, Mumbai. The article is for informational purposes only. Please consult with medical experts and healthcare professionals before beginning any therapy, medication and / or remedy. Opinions expressed are personal and do not reflect the positions or policies of Financial Express Online.)
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