This September 13 is fulfilled 171 years of the battle that was made at the Military College in 1847, which was developed in the Castillo de Chapultepec, and from that episode in the history of Mexico arises the day of children heroes.
Gesta Heroica de los Niños Héroes de Chapultepec pic.twitter.com/0Im5DnAZgw
— SEDENA México (@SEDENAmx) September 12, 2018
Prior to the battle in the Military College, the United States Army had invaded the country to that intervention is known as "the war of 47 ", the US Army attacked through northern Mexico and another part landed in the Port of Veracruz, with the goal of reaching the capital and once they reached the hill of the grasshopper the US bombed from September 12 the Castle of Chapultepec.
In the history classes from basic education, emphasis is placed on the role of Children heroes In this battle, and to remember in a particular way this day we mentioned some curious facts and how these cadets have been immortalized.
1. Your ages
According to his book, "Children heroes", by José Manuel Villalpando These were the ages of the cadets at the time of death: Juan EscutiaHe was 20 and Villalpando's investigation affirms that he was not a cadet but a soldier from the San Blas battalion, Juan de la Barrera (19 years), Francisco Márquez was the youngest was 12 years old and 11 months old at the time of death, Agustín Melgar Y Fernando Montes de Oca they were 18 when they died and Vicente Suárez He was the second youngest at 14 years of age.
2. The magnitude of the defense
The Military College had a broad defense, not only were six but 37 cadets more who faced the attack and there was at least 800 soldiers of the Mexican army and a battalion of 400 men from San Blas. Surely the balance of dead soldiers and cadets was much greater because the offensive of the US soldiers far outweighs the Mexican forces, but those dead were forgotten in history.
3. From hatred is born the cult
The dead cadets were already commemorated year after year, Benito Juarez was the first president who decreed a day of mourning on September 13, but the nationalist sentiment and the cult of child heroes was revived in 1947.
In August of that year the president of the United States, Harry S. Truman, visited Mexico and left a flower arrangement on the obelisk in honor of the Heroes, his gesture was disapproved by the Mexican and in the evening some cadets withdrew the arrangement and They threw it out of the United States embassy.
4. The bills and coins
Los Niños Héroes appeared in the 5 thousand pesos old bills, issued between years between 1981 and 1989. In the years of 1994 and 1995 circle a 50 peso coin, with the center of silver and to contain this metal its value was greater.
5. The myth and reality of the defense of the flag
His full name was Juan Bautista Pascacio Escutia Martínez, from his participation in the defense of Chapultepec Castle if there are records, even the official story has indicated him as the hero child that was launched from the top of the castle with the Mexican flag, so that it was not taken by the United States Army.
The fact happened, but reality differs from basic education history books. The historian Alejandro Rosas points out that Captain Margarito Zuazo of the Mina battalion was the one who wrapped himself in the national flag.
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Zuazo saw General Antonio de León and Colonel Lucas Balderas fall to his bosses, but he was able to avoid the bullets, the cannon fire and the sharp bayonets and arrived at the main building of Molino del Rey, it was at that moment when the jacket and shirt and the flag was entangled against his body.
But the death reached him, the American bayonets crossed it and although it clung to the flag, that today the Castle of Chapultepec keeps not ventured with her.
The cult to the Heroes Heroes prevails and every year an official act is realized to commemorate the act and the flag is raised to half until.