Efficient use of nutrients :: Campo Litoral

Martin Diaz-Zorita

We know that the potential yield of each production site is limited by the supply of nutrients and we act accordingly by implementing various strategies for the diagnosis and management of fertilization to strategically and abundantly provide the elements that plants need to grow normally.

Achieving an efficient use of the applied nutrients is very important both to achieve a greater return in terms of production per unit of fertilizer and to maximize its incorporation into the plants and thus limit its losses outside of direct use by crops. With this framework, efficient nutrient management from the correct choice of fertilizer timing, location, source and dosage is critical.

At a global level, and only when producing winter cereals, we know that approximately up to half of the nitrogen applied when fertilizing is not incorporated into crops. Thus, to improve its use, that is, its transformation into yields, various fertilizer management strategies are recommended that vary between regions and that depend, among other elements, on the environmental conditions of production.

Technological tools

In the Pampean region during winter, long periods with little and random rainfall predominate and in response to this characteristic it is advisable to anticipate fertilization in winter cereals towards the beginning of tillering. In addition, mainly when the products are applied in coverage, use sources or conditioned formulations to reduce the various natural loss processes that occur between the solubilization of fertilizers and their incorporation into the plants.

This recommendation extends, regardless of its sowing date, also to nitrogen management in corn and sorghum. The contribution of applying fertilizers with high incorporation efficiency, only valued from the contributions to production per unit of nitrogen applied, are positive and with variable frequencies. On average for the last wheat and corn campaigns, in studies in the central Pampean area, this contribution was equivalent to between 5 and 6% of the yield achieved. In the case of phosphorus, improvements in growth and production are also described by properly choosing fertilizer formulations.

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Verdesian AVAIL® T5, is a soluble polymer that manages to reduce the fixation of phosphorus (P), improving the availability of phosphorus applied in an effective way, this technology improves availability up to 40%, improving the efficiency in the use of this nutrient that with traditional treatments in a phosphorous application, with luck, 25% can remain available for cultivation.

The incorporation of biological treatments, emulating the natural processes that accompany the growth of plants, are an important element in the search for better conditions of incorporation and transformation of nutrients. Depending on the crop, various microorganisms are identified that, when applied in seed treatments, help by direct processes or derived from their functionality to the nutrition of the plants.

For example, in soybeans, efficient inoculation with rhizobia explains on average 8% of the production results, improving the efficiency of incorporation and transformation of nutrients such as phosphorus. In cereals, growth-promoting microorganisms contribute to the productive stability of these crops both in winter and in summer and thus improve the transformation of the nutrients available in the soil or those provided when fertilizing. In summary,By intelligently planning fertilization, taking into account the incorporation of decisions that improve the efficiency of the use of nutrients, we accompany the natural functioning of the crops by increasing their effective incorporation in the plants, which translates into reductions in losses outside the production system and improvements in yields per unit. fertilizer applied

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The technologies that help this responsible administration of nutrients contemplate both management actions (sampling and intelligent or directed diagnosis of soils, times and location of fertilizers) as well as technological innovations in the formulation of fertilizers. The latter, by limiting the losses of applied nutrients, explain on average production responses equivalent to between 5 and 6% of the yields achieved.

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The inclusion of biological technologies that enhance plant growth also contributes to improving the incorporation of available nutrients, soil or fertilizers, and their transformation into production. Today, as nature does, integrating actions of greater efficiency in the use of nutrients helps to improve production both for its contributions towards crops and their income as well as towards the environment and its sustained development.

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