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FERTILIZATION OF SOYBEAN IN ROTATION WITH RICE

Transcript of SOYBEAN FERTILIZATION IN ROTATION WITH RICE

Slide 1J. Castle – T. Lucas- F. Bonilla – R. Amaral – J. Terra
INTRODUCTION
It is necessary to validate the adjusted management for soybean cultivation
under different conditions for which it was generated.
Fertilization could be one of the aspects of greatest
alteration due to the changes it causes in the dynamics of
soil nutrients the alternation between stages of waterlogging
(rice) and dried (soy) (Fageria et al. 2011).
Compared to rice cultivation, soybeans are more
demanding in amount of mobilized nutrients,
mainly P and K, needing other microelements
essential for the enzymatic activity of the legume as well
as for the FBN (García et. al. 2009).
INTRODUCTION
sufficiency and according to balance including expectation of
performance. In the first one, it is fertilized up to a level of
nutrient in soil above which it is not expected
find answer in performance while the second
considered apart from the contribution of the soil and optimal ranges,
extracted in grain and the expectation of yield (Macnack et
al. 2012)
addition of micronutrients and calcareous source evaluating the
grain yield and yield components of
different soybean crops in soils in rotation with rice and in
different locations.
• Fertilize to a nutrient level in the
soil in which there is no further increase of
performance = critical level
which is unlikely to exist
response (yield increase) to the
Fertilization
• First stage:
– Fertilize the soil
• through a balance (inputs – outputs)
– It is assumed that there is no fixation of P, K or other
nutrient losses.
FINE TUNNING
FINE TUNNING
– The level required to move from the zone of
increase in maintenance
• Optimum level
– N. Max. environmentally acceptable
FINE TUNNING
BACKGROUND -LOCAL-
Variable Length Fertilization Experiment
Term
Evaluate the plant response of an agricultural sequence (oats-sorghum-soybean-wheat), to different criteria and fertilization systems (N, P and K), in contrasting systems of direct sowing (continuous agriculture or agriculture in rotation with pastures). (Terra and Cantou, s/p)
BACKGROUND -LOCAL-
BACKGROUND -LOCAL-
Evaluated sequences
Short Rotation
Note: Oats for grain
Sg: sorghum
Cob.: coverage
Sj: soja
Pr2: second year prairie
Sg: sorghum
Sj: soja
TR: Wheat
BACKGROUND -LOCAL-
N
Criterion Critical level of sufficiency 20 12 0.25
Raise and hold 20 20 0.30 Fertilizer equivalent (kg N, P2O5, K2O) 3.22 10 1170
Fertilization Criteria
Harvest Summer_2009/2010
KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0
Pot 10_Soya 100 0 104.7 17 188 100 195 103
Harvest Summer_2010/2011
Fert. (kg/ha) KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0
Pasture 9_Soybean 0 0 33 13 46 112 49 121
Paddock 11_Soybean 140 0 123 0 31 77 31 77
Harvest Summer_2011/2012
Fert. (kg/ha) KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0
Pasture 8_Soybean 110 0 125 9 50 124 50 124
Harvest Summer_2012/2013
Fert. (kg/ha) KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0 KCl 0-46-0
Pasture 7_Soybean 156 0 158 15 56 137 55 135
Paddock 11_Soybean 58 20 83 7 40 98 41 100
KG FERT AGGREGATE 94 3 104 10 69 108 70 110
BACKGROUND -LOCAL-
Harvest Summer_2009/2010
Pot 10_Soja 2678 2705 2776 2848 2665 2734
Harvest Summer_2010/2011
Pasture 9_Soybean 1335 1250 1285 1222 1134 1245
Pasture 11_Soybean 1535 1452 1428 1610 1433 1492
Harvest Summer_2011/2012
Pasture 8_Soybean 2601 2679 2694 2609 2470 2610
Harvest Summer_2012/2013
Pasture 7_Soybean 4081 3880 3901 3965 3855 3936
Pasture 11_Soybean 4372 4133 4361 4330 4358 4311
Prom. Criterion 2767 2683 2741 2764 2652
MATERIALS & METHODS
4 sites: Rio Branco, Rincon, 2nd Thirty-Three and India Muerta
6 treatments: 2 philosophies (NS and ER), with and without source addition
calcareous and with and without addition of micronutrients.
– NS
– IS
– NS + Micronutrients (V7 and R3)
Variety: Nidera 5909 (double dose of liquid inoculant)
Target population: 320 thousand plants/ha
Fecha siembra 1 Nov 17 Nov 18 Nov 20 Nov
K Int (meq.K/100g) 0,23 0,28 0,15 0,26
Mg (meq.Mg/100g) 2,5 2,7 1,1 3,9
pH (water) (**) 5.5 5.3 5.8 5.4
Organic Matter (%) 1.4 1.5 2.9 3.7
P Ac. Citrus (ppm P)
Critical Levels for sufficiency level approach:
P 12 ppm (Citrus P)
K 0.30 meq /100 gr in heavy soils
K 0.25 meq/100 gr in light soils
Criteria for Balance + performance expectation:
Over supply of nutrients from the soil, fertilize for a
target yield of 3000 kg/ha soybean
MATERIALS & METHODS
Bal + ER (kg / ha P2O5) 60 46 35 51
N. Sufficiency (kg/ha P2O5) 47 0 0 30
Bal + ER (kg / ha K2O) 48 43 121 57
N. Sufficiency (kg/ha K2O) 46 24 117 49
RESULTS
LOC * TRAT ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
Location
chauch/
RESULTS
N
c h
a u
c h
a b b b c c
RESULTS
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
RESULTS Balance simple
I Dead NC 28 165 48
I Dead ER 27 184 44
Corner NC 31 235 57
Corner ER 29 232 57
Recommendation
Fertilization
Bal + ER (kg / ha P2O5) 60 46 35 51
N. Sufficiency (kg/ha P2O5) 47 0 0 30
Bal + ER (kg / ha K2O) 48 43 121 57
N. Sufficiency (kg/ha K2O) 46 24 117 49
RESULTS Nutrient concentrations and ratios – Beretta , Andrés -INIA
TREATMENT SITE P assessment N assessment K assessment REND
TyT NC 0.33 adequate to critical 5.31 adequate 1.34 critical 4540
TyT BAL 0.10 marginal 5.82 adequate 1.26 critical 4807
TyT NC+ Cal 0.33 adequate to critical 4.59 adequate 1.28 critical 4987
TyT BAL +Cal 0.31 critical to adequate 5.48 adequate 1.20 critical 5017
TyT NC+ Micro 0.11 marginal 5.80 adequate 1.21 critical 5012
TyT BAL +Micro 0.10 marginal 5.36 adequate 1.12 marginal to critical 4956
Ri NC 0.29 critical to adequate 5.30 adequate 1.50 critical 3668
Ri BAL 0.27 critical to adequate 5.53 adequate 1.28 critical 3734
Ri NC+ Cal 0.28 critical to adequate 4.64 adequate 1.21 critical 3735
Ri BAL +Cal 0.28 critical to adequate 5.16 adequate 1.23 critical 3594
Ri NC+ Micro 0.29 critical to adequate 5.49 adequate 1.61 critical to adequate 3317
Ri BAL +Micro 0.26 critical to adequate 5.39 adequate 1.46 critical 3476
IM NC 0.23 critical to adequate 5.49 adequate 0.85 marginal 3125
MI BAL 0.23 critical to adequate 5.13 adequate 0.95 marginal 3097
IM NC+ Cal 0.20 critical to marginal 5.62 adequate 0.77 marginal 3057
MI BAL +Cal 0.22 critical to adequate 6.34 high 0.89 marginal 3127
IM NC+ Micro 0.21 critical to adequate 5.10 adequate 0.77 marginal 2974
MI BAL +Micro 0.23 critical to adequate 5.62 adequate 0.79 marginal 3036
RESULTS Nutrient concentrations and ratios – Beretta , Andrés -INIA
0.88
0.9
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
1
1.02
R R
N/K general trend quadratic plus plateu site IM treat. NCMicro
For N/K 5.03: RR= 0.988
RESULTS
Dead India 2nd T and Three Corner Rio Branco AVERAGE
NS 130 154 32 109 106
NS + Calc 180 204 82 159 156
NS + Micronut 146 170 48 125 122
BAL+ER 149 222 83 140 149
BAL+ER + Calc 199 272 133 190 199
BALL+ER +
Micronut 165 238 99 156 165 AVERAGE 162 210 79 146
Cost (US$/ha) of the different treatments evaluated
RESULTS
TyT
Rinc RBr
NS 260 308 63 218 531 885 667 145 NS + Calc 360 408 163 318 524 952 684 136 NS +
Micronut 292 340 95 250 514 997 684 146 BAL + ER 299 444 167 280 532 1004 649 152 BAL + ER +
Calc 399 544 267 380 494 1003 579 238 BAL+ER +
Micronut 331 476 199 312 509 989 619 159
Margin = Gross Income (kg x price) – 500 U$S Inputs (without fertilizer cost) converted to kg
of soy.
Fertilization cost = Unit cost of P2O5 and K2O x kg fertilizer at each site and
treatment carried to kg of soybeans.
FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
None of the fertilization treatments in any of the
localities generated differences in performance. this was
associated with different locations.
Neither the addition of calcareous nor the use of micronutrients via
foliar application had an impact on grain yield.
None of the fertilization treatments in any of the
localities generated differences in performance.
Under real conditions, differences would have been generated in the
economic income due to differential costs based on
the different treatments.
The only performance component that varied based on
treatments was the number of string beans/m2 although not
was associated with grain yield.
In the theme of K, new approaches are necessary in the
investigation, not only attending to the absolute contents
of the nutrient but also to the processes in the soil
(contribution capacity, extractive methods, etc.).
You have to pay attention!!!!! to the new scenario that can be
generated in terms of nutrient balance by the inclusion of
soybean in marginal environments in terms of fertility.
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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