Find out which vaccines must be up to date in the immunization booklet for adults and the elderly – Vaccines

Vaccination (Illustrative photo: Amanda Rocha)

SÃO PAULO, SP (FOLHAPRESS) – Many diseases have been eradicated or are no longer a public health problem because of mass vaccination of the population. Even with a greater number of vaccines during childhood, the vaccination calendar must also be up to date in adulthood to avoid the development of more common diseases, such as the flu, or even more serious ones, such as cancer.

The vaccine against influenza, the virus that causes the flu, should be taken once a year in adulthood. Generally between April and July, the vaccine is offered free of charge in the public network for adults in the risk group, teachers, health professionals and the elderly.

Another vaccine on the calendar that cannot be forgotten is the so-called dual adult (dT), which protects against diphtheria and tetanus and has a booster every ten years. The guideline is that the first dose should be taken in adolescence, from 15 years of age, and booster doses take place every decade.

“Today, in private clinics, there is a recommendation to do one of these boosters with the vaccine that is against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough as well. [tríplice bacteriana]”, explains Max Igor Banks Ferreira Lopes, an infectious disease specialist at Hospital Santa Catarina.

The doctor also reinforces the importance that the adult replace childhood vaccination gaps. For the MMR vaccine -against measles, mumps and rubella- two doses are required, which are guaranteed by the Unified Health System (SUS) up to 29 years of age. Between 30 and 29 years old, according to the SBIm (Brazilian Society of Immunizations), a dose is offered free of charge in the public network.

Vaccination against yellow fever should be performed, if not, in a single dose offered by SUS. The same goes for vaccines against hepatitis A and B. The three doses against hepatitis B are in the public network, while the two against type A are restricted to the private network.

“There is a combined vaccine for hepatitis A and B as well. Today, vaccination for hepatitis B is universally indicated in the country, available in the SUS and, most likely, anyone over 30 years old did not take it in childhood. Between 20 and 30 years, some must not have taken it either,” says the infectologist from Santa Catarina.

Immunization against HPV is, like the previous ones, important in adult life. Despite being part of the vaccination calendar for children and adolescents, the vaccine can be found in the private network and prevents cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and genital warts.

SBIm recommends vaccinating women ages 9 to 45 and men ages 9 to 26 as early as possible. Men and women of ages outside this range can also benefit from vaccination, according to medical criteria.

“For people who have already been infected by the HPV virus, the use of vaccination to prevent severe forms of HPV is also indicated”, complements Raquel Muarrek, an infectologist at Rede D’Or.

Finally, meningococcal vaccines (ACWY and B) are recommended for adults in some specific situations, depending on the epidemiological and individual risk. It is important to check the need with a doctor, as doses are restricted to the private network.

To find out if your vaccination schedule is up to date, in case you have lost your booklet or do not remember the doses taken, health centers and specialist doctors can help. “Some vaccines, from the National Immunization Plan, are registered at health posts”, explains Muarrek.

According to the infectologist, in the case of vaccines offered by private clinics, it is possible to carry out a medical evaluation with serological tests to check how much immunity the person has and readjust the vaccine portfolio.

Elderly people should pay attention to influenza, pneumonia and herpes zoster Among the routine vaccines recommended by the Brazilian Society of Immunizations (SBIm) for those over 60 years of age, there are some recommended doses for adults, such as the adult pair every ten years and the flu annually . In addition to these, the antipneumococcal and herpes zoster vaccines also stand out.

According to SBIm, there is an increased risk of severe forms and death from influenza from 60 years of age onwards, which makes the flu vaccine even more important to be taken every year in this age group.

Protection from pneumonia is also essential. “There are two pneumococcal vaccines, one we call a conjugate [VPC13] and another polysaccharide [VPP23]. From the age of 60, polysaccharide is expected in the public network, but there is a scheme that combines the conjugate and it”, explains Max Igor Banks Ferreira Lopes, an infectious disease specialist at Hospital Santa Catarina.

The recommendation cited by the physician and published by the SBIm is to perform the first dose of the conjugate vaccine at 60 years of age, followed by the first dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide after six months and a booster of the PPV23 after five years.

In addition to these, the vaccine against herpes zoster, an infection caused by the same chickenpox virus, is also indicated for the age group. The single dose is recommended even for those who have already developed the disease, but it is not offered in the Unified Health System (SUS), only in private clinics.

KNOW MORE

Vaccination of adults and seniors

Vaccination booklet between 20 and 59 years old

Influence (gripe):

Recommendation: take once a year

Available in the public network: yes (for risk groups, pregnant women, health workers and teachers)

Note: There are two types of vaccine, trivalent and quadrivalent. The quadrivalent brings protection to an extra type of flu virus and is only available in the private network.

Adult double (diphtheria and tetanus) or triple bacterial (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis):

Recommendation: take a booster every ten years after the first dose, usually at 15 years of age

Available on the public network: yes

Note: if you have not taken the first dose between 15 and 20 years, the adult should seek to immunize and then follow the booster every ten years.

Meningococcal ACWY and B (meningitis):

Recommendation: take one dose of ACWY and two doses of B

Available on public network: no, only private

Note: vaccines are part of the children’s calendar, but because they were recently added and restricted to the private network, many adults did not take them as children

HPV:

Recommendation: take all three doses at any adult age, if not taken in adolescence

Available on public network: no, only private

Note: vaccine recommended even for adults previously infected with the HPV virus

Vaccination booklet for over 60s

Influence (gripe):

Recommendation: take once a year

Available on the public network: yes

Note: There are two types of vaccine, trivalent and quadrivalent. The quadrivalent brings protection to an extra type of flu virus and is only available in the private network.

Herpes zoster:

Recommendation: single dose after 60 years of age

Available on public network: no, only private

Note: vaccine recommended even for those who have already developed the disease

Pneumococcal (pneumonia – VPP23):

Recommendation: first dose at 60 years of age and booster after five years

Available on the public network: yes

Note: There is another pneumococcal vaccine called the conjugate (VPC13), which is not available in the public network, but can be taken from the age of 60 on a combined regimen with VPP23

Vaccines that should also be taken if the adult did not receive them in childhood:

Yellow fever

Hepatitis A and B

Triple viral (measles, mumps and rubella)

Chickenpox (chickenpox)*

*Seek a doctor before getting vaccinated to see if immunization is necessary

“I don’t remember if I got a certain vaccine or lost my vaccination booklet. What to do?”

If it is a vaccine taken in the public network, look for a health center to check the records in the system and receive guidance. In the case of the private network, seek an infectious disease doctor or immunologist to carry out a medical evaluation and serology tests for the readjustment of the vaccine portfolio.

Sources: Brazilian Society of Immunizations (SBIm); Max Igor Banks Ferreira Lopes, infectious diseases specialist at Hospital Santa Catarina; and Raquel Muarrek, infectologist at Rede D’Or.

.