Gamma GT, transaminases sgpt: what do they reveal about liver health?

Gamma GT and transaminases: what roles do these markers play in our body?

The gamma GT (glutamyl transpeptidase) et transaminases are enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids, essential components of proteins. “The gamma GT is very present in the foiebut also in the ra says Professor Lawrence Serfaty. Transaminases are present in the liver, but also in the heart and muscles. “In case of myocardial infarction, the transaminases increase », observe le Pr Serfaty.

ASAT and ALAT: what is the difference?

Blood tests distinguish between AST transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase) and TOOL (alanine aminotransferase). “The increase in AST transaminases is more specific to alcohol-related liver damage. That of the ALAT rather evokes a viral hepatitis “says Dr. Lionel Barrand.

When should gamma GT and transaminases be measured?

This type of assessment with the two dosages of (gamma GT and transaminases) is often requested by GPs. For Dr. Serfaty, “these are very general markers of liver damage. » Dosage of transaminases and gamma GTs is most commonly performed in the face of non-specific symptoms (abdominal pain, digestive disorders, etc.). the hepatic check also makes it possible to follow the evolution of patients whose liver is diseased (decrease in alcohol consumption, weight loss in people suffering from “fatty liver disease” (Nash), regression of viral hepatitis).

What is a normal level of gamma GT and transaminases in a blood test?

When a dosage of transaminases and gamma GTs is carried out, it is noted that their levels may vary slightly from one laboratory to another. Here are the normal values ​​of each of these enzymes in a blood test: a normal gamma GT blood levels for a man the normal blood level of transaminases is between 8 and 35 IU/l for a man, for a woman it is between 6 and 25 IU/l. A normal blood level of AST transamines for a man is 8-30 IU/l, for a woman 6-25 IU/l. A normal blood level of ALT transaminases for a man is 8-35 IU/l, for a woman 6-25 IU/l.

When to worry when you have too high levels of gamma GT and transaminases?

Rates can rise very suddenly, for example when a stone obstructs the bile ducts. However, “a high level is not correlated with the severity of the disease”, specifies Professor Serfaty. A liver test ten to thirty times higher than normal suggests an acute problem (drug-induced hepatitis, viral hepatitis A, B, C or E, gallstones, inflammation of the bile ducts, etc.). A rate less than ten times the normal tilts the balance in favor of a chronic disease (viral hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis, Nash, etc.). In any case, it will be necessary to refine the diagnosis.

Apart from the blood test, what are the other tests to be carried out?

Apart from the blood test, doctors can prescribe a ultrasound which makes it possible to visualize a possible obstacle such as a stone or tumor. When hepatitis is suspected, a blood test for antibodies is done. Other more specific examinations determine the level of liver fibrosis.

Increased levels of gamma GT and transaminases: what can cause them to vary?

The GT gamma increases after a single infection. The rate is higher in case of overweight or diabetes. It may reveal regular and excessive alcohol consumption. “But the CDT (Carboxy Deficient Transferrin) assay is more specific to chronic alcoholism “says Dr. Barrand.

Transaminases tend to rise when you have a fast-food type diet, or during cholesterol-lowering treatment with statins.