1974. Having failed to join the École Normale Supérieure (ENS) on rue d'Ulm (" I had 4 in philosophy, 4 in French, 4 in history He jokes), he goes to Italy, Syria, Egypt … Back in Paris, he follows a course of Arabic at the university. He then studied at the French Institute of Damascus.

1983. Graduate of Sciences-Po and Arabic, he defends his thesis, realized in Cairo, on the contemporary islamist movements.

2000. He publishes Jihad (1), assessment of the Islamist movement since 1970.

2015. He publishes Terror in the Hexagon (2), where he explores, in France, the development of a integral islam And the rise of the far right.

2016. He directs the Middle East Mediterranean Chair at ENS. While the specialists are divided on the springs of Islamist radicalism, he defends the thesis of a radicalization of Islam "And not a" Islamization of radicalism ".

October 2018. He publishes Getting out of chaos, crises in the Mediterranean and the Middle East.


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