President TrumpTrump pardons media tycoon, former GOP Leader of California State Assembly MORE has drawn criticism for issuing a string of pardons and commutations since taking office, an executive power traditionally used near the end of a presidency.
Critics argue that Trump is abusing his powers in order to settle political scores and reward staunch allies. The White House counters that it's correcting perceived injustices.
Here are the 12 people Trump has been pardoned or reduced.
Trump's first pardon was for Maricopa County, Ariz., Sheriff Joe Arpaio before the controversial figure served any jail time.
Arpaio was convicted in July 2017 of criminal contempt for disobeying a federal judge's order. illegally. Trump announced the pardon in August 2017, less than a month later, after completing a rally in Arizona.
In announcing the pardon, the White House praised Arpaio's work "protecting the public from the scourges of crime and illegal immigration."
Trump's decision received blowback from Democrats and civil rights groups Argoio had racially profiled Latinos. It raises questions about the politicization of the process, as Arpaio was an early supporter of Trump's 2016 candidacy.
Sholom Rubashkin, the former CEO of Iowa Kosher meat-processing, is planning a 27-year sentence for numerous financial crimes.
Rubashkin had served eight years of his sentence when Trump announced the commutation in December 2017.
Several members of Congress, as well as four attorneys general, had reached out to the White House to urge Trump to commute Rubashkin's sentence. Advocates noted he was a first-time, nonviolent offender.
Kristian Mark Saucier
Trump pardoned driller in March 2018 after the former Navy Sailor served jail time for mishandling classified by taking pictures onboard a nuclear submarine.
His attorneys cited former Secretary of State Hillary ClintonHillary Diane Rodham ClintonFrustrated Gump senators want answers from trump on iran Progressive group targets Susan Collins over trump judicial pick Poll: Biden leads Trump by double digits in Pennsylvania MORE'S mishandling of classified information as part of Saucier's defense. Trump invoked Saucier's case during the 2016 campaign and after taking office.
After a May 2016 guilty plea followed by incarceration, Saucier was released in September 2017, about six months before Trump pardoned him.
Days before the announcement, Saucier appeared on "Fox & Friends" to make his case. The president is known to watch the Fox News morning show.
Lewis "Scooter" Libby
CIA officer Valerie Plame, who is now in charge of Congress in New Mexico.
Former President George W. Bush commuted Libby's sentence but never offered him a full pardon.
Trump's April 2018 pardon raises alarms among Democrats and ethics watchdog groups, as it came in the midst of special counsel Robert MuellerRobert (Bob) Swan MuellerSasse: US should applaud choice of Mueller to lead Russia sample MORE'S probe into Russia' s interference in the presidential election, which ended about a year later.
Democrats suggested Trump was attempting to send a message that he would take care of allies at the end of the investigation, which did not establish the president's obstructed justice.
The posthumous pardon of heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson was one of Trump's less-controversial decisions.
Johnson, the first black heavyweight champion of the world, was convicted by an all-white jury in 1913 for "immoral purposes," which was illegal under the Mann Act. Johnson served a year in prison and was released in 1921. He died in 1946.
Trump announced the pardon in May 2018, when he was joined by actor Sylvester Stallone and previous heavyweight champions.
Conservative commentator Dinesh D'Souza, Clinton and former President Obama, received a pardon last summer after he pleaded guilty in 2014 to make illegal campaign contributions.
D'Souza's case is a cause celebre for many on the right. Trump insisted that he never met D'Souza but that he heard about his case in the media.
The conservative commentator, who was on a five-year probation, has railed against the Obama Administration, both before and after receiving the pardon. Like Trump, D'Souza spread the unfounded conspiracy that Obama was not born in the United States. Obama was born in Hawaii.
Alice Marie Johnson
Alice Marie Johnson, a 62-year-old great-grandmother, had her life sentence commuted after Kim Kardashian WestKimberly (Kim) NoK Kardashian WestKim Kardashian is the criminal justice reform needs Megyn Kelly to sit down with Kardashians for first NBC interview NRA on Kim Kardashian robbery: 'How is that possible?' MORE raised her case with the president.
Johnson had been convicted on non-violent drug and money charges at Alabama prison. Trump and Kardashian West, wife of vocal trump supporter Kanye WestKanye Omari WestKanye West has renounced politics but damage is already done, says former MSNBC host Kim Kardashian has more votes than Iowa caucuses Hillary: I 'desperately' want a phone like Kim Kardashian's for selfies MORE,
Johnson later emerged as a key figure in Trump's Push to Enact Criminal Justice Reform. She considered the State of the Union and the First Step Act, which reduces certain minimum sentences in certain instances and provides additional resources for inmates.
Dwight and Steven Hammond
Trump pardoned Dwight Hammond and his son Steve, two Oregon ranchers who were at the center of a standoff with the federal government over land ownership, in July 2018.
Their conviction for a 40-day armed occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in 2016. The Hammonds distanced themselves from the ensuing violence.
In announcing the pardon, white house press secretary Sarah HuckabeeSarah Elizabeth SandersLive coverage: Mueller's facts vs. Trump's spin Trump says he's called 'the greatest hostage negotiator this country has ever had' Sanders called the couple's five-year sentence sentences "unjust." Conservation groups argued the administration was defending violent extremists.
Trump this month pardoned to ex-Army first lieutenant accused of murdering Ali Mansur Mohamed, at unarmed Iraqi man, during an interrogation in 2008.
Behenna, who hails from Oklahoma, was sentenced in 2009 to 15 years in prison, and later paroled in 2014. In penning Behenna, Trump cited support from Oklahoma's attorney general and top military brass.
The pardon drew criticism from the American Civil Liberties Union, which is said to have endorsed crimes.
Trump this month also pardoned Conrad Black, a billionaire media mogul convicted in 2007 on charges related to embezzlement and obstruction of justice. In a statement, White House said Black was "totally deserving" of his pardon, pointing to high-profile figures who have vouched for his character, including Henry Kissinger and Elton John.
Black has been a Trump Tower vocal supporter with Trump Tower in Chicago, writing "Donald J. Trump: A President Like No Other."
"The idea that I would commit a crime is a nonsense," Black reportedly told the BBC following his pardon, adding that he was "rebuilding my fortune, life goes on, this is a great occasion."
Trump pardoned Nolan, the former Republican leader of the California State Assembly, on the same day he pardoned Black.
While serving as a state legislator, Nolan was charged with accepting illegal donations after being caught in an FBI sting operation. He pleaded guilty, resigned his seat and served 25 months in prison. The White House called Nolan's decision to plead guilty a "difficult" one he made in order to help his family.
Now an advocate for prisoner rights, Nolan played a key role in helping White House senior adviser and Trump son-in-law Jared KushnerGraham unveils bill to overhaul asylum laws GOP officials unsatisfied with some answers Kushner during immigration meeting: report MORE push through a criminal justice reform. According to The Washington Post, Nolan appeared alongside Kushner during a White House ceremony celebrating the passage of the legislation.