Thursday, 19 Apr 2018

History of Malaria in the Dongola Region

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Published on 17 April 2018

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Early References to Malaria near Dongola David J. Lewis Translated by: Badr Eddin Hamed Al Hashimi Introduction: This is a small article that reviews early references to malaria in areas near Dongola. The article was published in the twenty-ninth issue of the magazine “Sudan in letters and blogs SNR” issued in 1948. The author of the article is Dr. David James Lewis, who worked as an expert on insects in the Agricultural Research Department between 1935 and 1939, and then in the Department of Medical Insects between 1940 and 1945. The translator **** **** **** **** A few years ago, the most important African mosquitoes of the malaria parasite (scientifically known as the Anopheles gambiae from the Aswan reservoir region to central Egypt) spread malaria in a severe outbreak, which was later eradicated throughout the country. 1946 Malaria has been eradicated in an area in the Sudan located between Saras (south of Wadi Halfa) and the opportunities on the Sudanese-Egyptian border It is not known at the present time (1948) whether there is malaria in the north of the village, located in the land of silence, About 120 kilometers of opportunities. In view of the wide and rapid changes in the area where this important tropical mosquito is spread, one has the right to ask about the history of this medical insect in those areas, whether it was present, or whether it has spread in the present years from the south. Its history can be verified by examining the old records of the insect and the malaria records caused by the Gambian anophyltic parasite, which acts as a local biological vector, since other species of mosquitoes are rare or non-existent in this region. By studying what has been recorded in scientific and medical literature, malaria has been known in most of the present century (at least in the 20th century), at least in some parts of the Nile River between Meroe and opportunity. Swiss traveler Berkhardt crossed the area in 1813 and wrote of a pandemic fever in the flood season (experts now suspect it is malaria fever), but it does not occur annually. In many cases, the epidemic was fatal, and its appearance in Dongola was widespread. In those days, malaria appeared in the region in a sporadic and noncommunicative manner. The traveler Berkhardt was keen to stay away from the ponds of stagnant water in the Sonk Valley at night in proportion to the large number of mosquito bites. The mosquito is probably the same Gambian anopheles, with other species such as C. univittatus rarely disturbing, and C. molestus, a bovine mosquito that is rare in the region. The British priest George Wadenkaton (1793-1824), who accompanied Mohamed Ali Pasha’s campaign to open Sudan and recorded his memoirs about his visit to Sudan and Ethiopia, wrote that on November 16, 1820, mosquitoes were found to be so active that he hid under his mosquito net all day long Almost. When the man reached Arco, he wrote that the previous two nights were colder than usual, but that did not prevent mosquitoes from excessive activity. He described the mosquitoes as a species of that region, it is smaller and less tinnitus than other species. The description is that the traveler speaks of the Gambian Anopheles. The small insect called Phlebotomus papatasii is hardly heard, and the traveler must have encountered it in Egypt with other types of insects. On December 15, 1820, the chaplain from Meroe wrote that the advance of the army to the south was slow as many of the soldiers were not in good health, most of them with intermittent fevers or dysentery. They did not have enough of the drug extracted from the bark of a tree (perhaps the bark of a tree from Peruvia, which extracts the material “Peruvian bark / Sinchona” Peruvian bark (Cinchona) They arrived in Dongola on a return flight on January 2 and wrote about the low level of the Nile, the effects of which are visible even two miles from the shore. There were lots of large pits where villagers had taken clay for construction in the city, and now they were filled with stagnant water. In the vicinity of these ponds, there are grasses that may be the source of the intermittent fever that occurs after the flood. So we did not like the people (and our soldiers) getting sick. We gave one of these parents the medicine extracted from the bark for treatment. Before medicine knew the nature and transmission of malaria, it was known that the disease was very much associated with stagnant water. On January 5, Vandaktun reached the island of Arco and wrote that its western side “has many sands and many lowlands, which are now filled with stagnant water, fish and water birds.” Many say that this part of the island is usually unhealthy at this time of year ” . He wrote on January 9 that they continued to take doses (bark). The parents reassured us that if we stayed in that area for three or four more years, we would inevitably suffer the fever, from which they themselves suffer. The French traveler Cayo (1787-1869) was delayed beyond Arco due to Fièvre in December 1821, and wrote in his memoirs about dangerous fevers in the areas of Berber (south of Abu Hamad) that followed the rainy season. In 1833, the traveler George Huskin visited this area in 1833. Malaria was not widely spread in Abu Hamad during the flood. However, he described Dongola as an unhealthy place in the rainy season. In the heart, north of that area, the man slept outdoors without fear of dampness or cold. Hoskin also visited Kordofan and said that he had ague and fever. The Frenchmen Du Cadalvin and Dubrovre visited the Dongola region in 1830 and recorded in their memoirs that the dangerous diets observed in Sennar and Kordofan after the rains did not exist in Dongola with the same intensity or time. The French mentioned mosquitoes in the area and a kind of ointment used by parents to expel him. In 1885, the French geographer Unisim Riklos, in his book on the Nuba region, referred to the area under the Atabra River Nile, describing it as an unhealthy area, especially after the flood, due to stagnant ponds. The region is full of deadly feces. However, it was reported that the people lived in areas far from those ponds and grasslands. Riklos also said that there are branch channels from the Nile where water is usually lodged, creating a dangerous atmosphere. This email address is being protected from spambots. You have to enable javascript in order to see it.

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