Prior to the beginning of the 20th century, there were no effective treatments for infections caused by bacteria, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, rheumatic fever and urinary tract infections.

But in 1929, according to Livescience, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovered the first real antibiotic, penicillin, which led to a new era of medicine. Scientists have since found dozens of antibiotics, which fight bacteria in a variety of ways.

Many antibiotics, including penicillin, act by attacking the cell wall of bacteria, where drugs prevent bacteria from forming a molecule in the cell wall called peptidoglycan, which supplies the wall with the force it needs to survive in the human body.

Some antibiotics, which are used to treat acne and respiratory infections, inhibit protein synthesis. The drugs do so by preventing the main molecules from binding to the selected sites on the cell structures called ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs. Without proteins, Perform vital functions, including reproductive reproduction.

However, there are still other antibiotics that resist infection by stopping bacteria from folic acid production, or questioning the structure of the bacterial cell membrane, which controls how substances move inside and outside the cell.



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