Scientists come to a striking conclusion
two days ago at 19:04, views: 3134
Many overweight people have a shortage of key minerals and vitamins – this is the result of a scientific review of scientists from the University of Copenhagen. How to enrich your diet? About this "MK" told the experts.
Due to a poorly balanced diet or the absorption of trace elements in many obese people, insufficient intake of vital minerals such as iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, folates, and vitamins A and B12.
According to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 80% of Russians are deficient in vitamins. As a rule, we are not talking about the lack of any single vitamin, but about complex nutritional deficiencies, while at a special risk group there are overweight people, whose number is growing in Russia and already exceeds 40% of the population.
Up to 60% of Russians, for example, receive less vitamin C, 40 to 80% lack folic acid, and more than 40% lack carotene. At the same time, the availability of vitamins A, C and E is increasing: Russians began to eat more fruits, nuts and vegetables. The situation with the B vitamins remains heavy. Their lack, like iron deficiency, leads to anemia, especially in children and women.
Vitamin D is responsible for the absorption of calcium. Its lack increases the risk of rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults, especially the elderly. Partly in the deficit of this vitamin climate is to blame: Russia is a northern country where there is little sun. In addition, in our diet too little of the main source of vitamin D – fatty marine fish. In recent years, many discoveries have been made that suggest that the strength of bones is only one of the many merits of this vitamin. For example, a direct link between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases has been proven. Thus, a low level of vitamin D dramatically increases the risk of developing heart attacks and strokes in people over 40 years old. Some scientists attribute vitamin D deficiency to premature aging, as well as impaired memory and thinking in old age. In addition, there is evidence that a lack of vitamin D in pregnant women plays an important role in the formation of autism in children. And his lack of can be one of the reasons for the development of protracted depression. It also increases the body's resistance to skin diseases, such as psoriasis, and even flu with ARVI. In recent years, doctors have even discussed the idea of compulsory prevention of respiratory infections with vitamin D.
photo: Sergey Ivanov
Very often, vitamin D deficiency is found in people who are overweight. Sometimes it is enough to register a lady in the body with this vitamin, says Svetlana Kalinchenko, head of the department of endocrinology of the FPK MR (Peoples' Friendship University of Russia), as those extra pounds are melting before our eyes. In regions where foods contain little of this vitamin, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and arthritis are much more common, and young people are ill. It is proven that this vitamin hormone has a direct effect on insulin production. In addition, it is necessary – attention! – to prevent the development of a number of tumor diseases.
… Even a perfectly balanced diet of 2500 calories contains about 80% of the required amount of nutrients. Raising calories is a direct path to obesity, which has already become a global problem. Enriched foods come to the rescue. Their advantage is that the nutrients in them are presented in a form that is more easily absorbed by the body, or in combination, which enhances their action. Fortified foods are divided into added ones — like iodized salt or fluorinated water, and reconstituted — for example, whole-grain bread with a high fiber content.
“Fortified foods are a great and safe alternative to multivitamin complexes and food supplements. People often forget that vitamin complexes are a medicine, and they should be taken as directed by a doctor. The content of certain nutrients in them can be very high, and the excess in the diet, say, vitamin A is harmful to the body. An increased percentage of vitamins and microelements in fortified nutritious foods is enough to adjust the diet, but they will not cause overdose, ”says Professor Medvedev, head of the Healthy Nutrition Research Center.
The problem of nutrient deficiencies is not only Russian, but also international. According to WHO, nutrient deficiency is experiencing 1/3 of the population of the planet. The latest studies have shown that from 2008 to 2017, the consumption of key micro and macro elements, including iron, vitamin A and fiber, fell every year and is at a level significantly lower than recommended. Lack of vitamins and iron increases the risk of anemia.
Especially disturbing is the reduction of nutrients in the diet of children. The main reason is the wrong diet: the population of the Earth receives too few fruits and vegetables and abuses products of high processing: high-calorie, low in nutrients. “In the coming years, we should focus on food quality, not quantity,” say WHO experts.
Trying to enrich the most common products that most often fall on the table of consumers. The most common ones are the following:
■ Vegetable fat spreads and oil supplemented with vitamins A and D. These fat-soluble vitamins must be eaten at the same time as fats for proper absorption. Unsaturated vegetable fats are most beneficial for the body.
■ Whole grain products. Bread and porridge – the basic products, they fall on the table almost every day. Therefore, they often add vitamins and trace elements. There are bakery products and cereals with a high content of iodine, iron, calcium, vitamin D.
■ Dairy products fortified with vitamin D and calcium, or with the addition of bifidobacteria.
■ Soy foods that are especially popular among vegetarians who do not consume meat and / or dairy products. To compensate for the lack of vitamin B12 and calcium, manufacturers often enrich soy with these nutrients.