The men in Spain were almost completely wiped out and replaced by a mass movement of people from the Russian steppe, as revealed by genetic analysis.

The transformation of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes today's Portugal and Spain, took place in the Bronze Age 4,000 to 4,500 years ago.

Experts came to the conclusion when they looked at the unique Y chromosome of males in the region, derived from fossils from the last 8,000 years.

The same shift was not observed for women whose DNA remained relatively "local," but scientists did not know exactly why this dramatic change was "male."

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The men in Spain were almost completely wiped out and replaced by a mass movement of people from the Russian steppe, as revealed by genetic analysis. Pictured is one of the places where excavation work in Balma Guilanyà on the Iberian Peninsula took place

The men in Spain were almost completely wiped out and replaced by a mass movement of people from the Russian steppe, as revealed by genetic analysis. Pictured is one of the places where excavation work in Balma Guilanyà on the Iberian Peninsula took place

Researchers at the University of Hudersfield sequenced the genome of 403 Iberians, who died between 6,000 BC. Chr. And 1.600 v. Chr. Lived.

The study shows in detail how the population of Iberia has changed dramatically over time, from the beginnings of hunters and gatherers before the arrival of agriculture 7,500 years ago to the Middle Ages and modern times.

Most striking was the influx of new people in the later Copper Age, which was also called the cup period about 4,500 years ago because of the ubiquitous presence in burials of large drinking vessels.

In the early Bronze Age, 500 years later, these newcomers accounted for about 40% of the genetic pool of Iberia – but virtually 100% of their male ancestry.

This suggests that the newcomers were mostly men, and that they were able to replace almost all the men who lived there while the native women survived the takeover.

By tracking the Y chromosome, scientists were able to track the male line from father to son, as this genetic material is absent in women

The researchers said, "We show sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa around 2500 BC, and until 2000 BC, the replacement of 40% of Iberian ancestors and nearly 100% of its Y chromosomes by humans with steppe ancestors."

Some of the finds that archaeologists found in the Iberian Peninsula. Mesolithic hunters and gatherers found themselves as brothers. The same shift in genetic material was not observed for women who remained relatively "local."

Some of the finds that archaeologists found in the Iberian Peninsula. Mesolithic hunters and gatherers found themselves as brothers. The same shift in genetic material was not observed for women who remained relatively "local."

WHAT WAS THE BELL BEAKER CULTURE?

Between 4,700 and 4,400 years, a new bell-shaped ceramic style spread to Western and Central Europe, and this period is referred to as the "bell cup".

The epoch got its name from the pottery's characteristic bells, which were decorated in horizontal zones with finely toothed stamps.

The ornate pots are almost omnipresent throughout Europe and could have been used as drinking vessels or solemn urns.

It is believed that they were originally from Spain, and the Beaker people, looking for metals, soon spread to Central and Western Europe.

But the sheer variety of cup artifacts across Europe has made it difficult to define ceramics as originating from a particular culture.

A new study published in Nature suggests that beaker culture has spread through two different mechanisms in Europe – the diffusion of ideas and migration.

Becherklexlexe grave goods from La Sima III, Soria, Spain. The set includes cup pots in the so-called "maritime style"

Becherklexlexe grave goods from La Sima III, Soria, Spain. The set includes goblets in the so-called "maritime style" & # 39;

Even more remarkable today is that both Iberia and India have a similar source – a population of breeders who once used metal and lived 5,000 years north of the Black Sea in the Russian steppes.

They spread in both directions, from west to Europe and east to Asia, to their economy, to the domesticated horses, and to the wheeled vehicles that gave them a distinct advantage over the native country dwellers.

It is believed that they also brought along the Indo-European languages ​​spoken in Europe and India today.

The researchers found that the Iberians around 2.500 BC. Together with newcomers from Central Europe lived, who had worn the youngest ancestors of these people in the Russian steppe.

Within a few hundred years, the two groups had crossed extensively.

An alternative possibility would be for native Iberians to favor the Central European newcomers in the context of a "strong social stratification," Dr. Lalueza-Fox said

An alternative possibility would be for native Iberians to favor the Central European newcomers in the context of a "strong social stratification," Dr. Lalueza-Fox said

The transformation of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes today's Portugal and Spain, took place in the Bronze Age 4,000 to 4,500 years ago. Pictured is another archaeological tomb in Cueva de Chaves

The transformation of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes today's Portugal and Spain, took place in the Bronze Age 4,000 to 4,500 years ago. Pictured is another archaeological tomb in Cueva de Chaves

This was exemplified in a Bronze Age site known as Castillejo de Bonete in Spain, where a woman and a man were found buried side by side.

Analyzes showed that the woman's ancestry was completely local, while the man had very young ancestors from Central Europe.

"This is one of the strongest evidences in DNA research into the history of gender," said Iñigo Olalde, a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of David Reich at Harvard Medical School and first author of the study.

Marina Silva added, "It's a fascinating situation because the Beaker culture had its origins in Portugal and spread from there across Europe. At the same time, or shortly thereafter, men who probably spoke Indo-European languages ​​moved in the opposite direction

"Educating population dynamics in Western Europe during the Copper and Bronze Ages is a great step towards understanding the origins of the Celtic languages ​​spoken throughout Western Europe before the rise of the Roman Empire."

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT OUR BENEFITS?

Four major studies lately have changed the view of our ancestral history.

The study of the Simons Genome Diversity Project

After analyzing the DNA of 142 populations around the world, the researchers conclude that all the modern humans living today can trace their origins back to a single group that originated in Africa 200,000 years ago.

They also found that all non-Africans seemingly descended from a single group that separated from the ancestors of African hunter-gatherers some 130,000 years ago.

The study also shows how people in Africa seem to be forming isolated groups whose populations are separated.

The KhoeSan in South Africa separated from the Yoruba in Nigeria about 87,000 years ago, while the Mbuti split 56,000 years ago from the Yoruba.

The study of the Estonian Biocentre Human Genome Diversity Panel

483 genomes from 148 populations around the world were studied to investigate the spread of Homo sapiens from Africa.

They found that the native population of modern Papua New Guinea owes two percent of their genome to a now-extinct group of Homo sapiens.

This indicates that about 120,000 years ago there was a pronounced wave of migration from Africa.

The Australian Aborigine Study

Using genomes from 83 Aboriginal Australians and 25 New Guinea Papuans, this study examined the genetic origins of these populations from the early Pacific.

It is believed that these groups are descended from some of the first humans to leave Africa, and have raised the question of whether their ancestors are from a previous wave of migration than the rest of Eurasia.

The new study found that the ancestors of modern Australian Aborigines and Papuans separated from Europeans and Asians some 58,000 years ago after a single migration from Africa.

These two populations themselves evolved about 37,000 years ago, long before the physical separation of Australia and New Guinea some 10,000 years ago.

The study on climate modeling

Researchers at the University of Hawaii in Mānoa used one of the first integrated computer models for climate and human migration to restore the spread of Homo sapiens over the past 125,000 years.

The model simulates ice ages, abrupt climate change and records the arrival times of Homo sapiens in the eastern Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, southern China and Australia in close accordance with paleoclimate reconstructions and fossil and archaeological finds.

It was found that modern man left Africa in a series of slow migration waves 100,000 years ago.

They estimate that Homo sapiens first arrived in southern Europe 80,000 to 90,000 years ago, much earlier than previously thought.

The results challenge traditional models that suggest that there was a single exodus from Africa some 60,000 years ago.

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