Hyperparathyroidism (primary, secondary, tertiary): symptoms, consequences, treatment

The four parathyroid glands are located at the base of the neck. Their role is to produce parathyroid hormone, also called PTH. This hormone participates in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus levels in the human body. When a person suffers from hyperparathyroidism, the amount of calcium in the blood can therefore increase abnormally, which can have important health consequences.

The parathyroid glands secrete a quantity of parathyroid hormone which depends on the level of calcium, also called calcemia, in the blood. When there is not enough calcium in the body, the glands deliver more parathyroid hormone to raise blood calcium. When the calcium level is on the contrary too high, the quantity of parathyroid hormone delivered will drop to maintain a balance. To act on the calcium contained in the body, the parathormone has an impact on several organs. First of all, it acts on the intestine, which will more or less absorb calcium as needed. The parathormone also has an action on the bones, which will store or release calcium. Finally, this hormone acts on the kidneys, which can eliminate calcium through the urine.

In case of hyperparathyroidism, the parathyroid glands deliver more parathyroid hormone than necessary, which has the effect of raising the calcium level abnormally. There are three types of hyperparathyroidism:

In all cases, hyperparathyroidism is characterized by a rate that is too (…)

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