NASA has begun the final preparations for the next – and most ambitious – rover on Mars.
The InSight probe launched on May 5 and NASA hopes it will land on the surface of Mars on November 26th.
If he succeeds in landing on the red planet, it will penetrate the surface of Mars in a groundbreaking study that could show how the red planet and the Earth formed.
InSight will investigate the deep interior of Mars, capturing the planet's vital signs, heart rate, and temperature, and NASA says it will be studying Mars for the first time since its inception 4.5 billion years ago.
"InSight will show us the inside of planets like our own.
"The mission team hopes that exploring the deep interior of Mars will help us understand how other rocky worlds, including Earth and Moon, have formed."
A slender cylindrical probe, called a mole, is designed to penetrate nearly five meters into the bottom of Mars.
An earthquake-measuring earthquake measuring instrument is removed from the lander by a mechanical arm and placed directly on the surface to better monitor the vibrations.
Earlier missions to the Red Planet have studied its surface by studying canyons, volcanoes, rocks and soils.
However, the signatures of the formation of the planet can only be found by feeling and examining its vital signs well below the surface.
However, before the InSight Lander can begin work on Mars, he must survive an insidious reentry and landing through the planet's atmosphere.
After traveling more than 300 million kilometers in space and reaching the Martian atmosphere, the InSight probe has only seven minutes to safely land on the water surface – often as the most insidious phase of the mission, according to the agency.
"Landing on Mars is tough and this mission is no different," said Rob Manning, chief engineer of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
"It takes thousands of steps to get from the atmosphere to the surface, and each one has to work perfectly."
The ship will reach up to 13,000 miles per hour as it descends through the atmosphere.
InSight is said to land on a flat, smooth plain near the planet's equator, known as Elysium Planitia.
"Where we land is a deliberately boring place," British missionary Neil Bowles told The Guardian.
"It's flat, empty and hopefully not very windy, and that's exactly what we need."
The success rate of landing on Mars, which counts NASA and other orbiters and lander, is only about 40 percent.
When the Lander survives its landing, the solar-powered InSight will spend two years on Earth – about a Martian year – to probe the depths of the planet's interior for clues to the formation of Mars and, therefore, the formation of Earth and other rock falls
While Earth's tectonics and other forces have erased most of the evidence of their early history, it is believed that much of Mars – about a third of Earth – has remained relatively static for more than three billion years, creating a geological time machine for scientists Has.
"The science we want to accomplish with this mission is really the science of understanding the early solar system," said Bruce Banerdt, senior investigator of InSight, before launching the vessel in an interview.
InSight's primary instrument is a seismometer built in France, a device that detects the least ground motion of "Marsquakes," even on the opposite side of the planet.
The instrument is so sensitive, Dr. Banerdt that it can measure a seismic wave, which is only half the radius of a hydrogen atom.
Unlike Earth, Mars has no tectonic plates, so scientists want to know more about the causes of the geological phenomenon.
Special instruments attached to the InSight Lander help them collect data on the geological structure, composition and seismic activity of the red planet over a period of two years.
InSight is equipped with two solar panels that unfold like paper trays over a total width of about 20 feet.
It will also use a seismometer that records vibrations caused by geological errors as well as shockwaves generated by meteor impacts.
Radio equipment is attached to the lander to track the position of InSight on the surface of Mars, and to determine how much Mars "wobbles" as it orbits the Sun – a project called the Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE) becomes.
This gives insight into the size of the ice-rich core of Mars and whether it is liquid or solid and which other elements may be present according to NASA.
Eventually, a heat flux probe will drill 16 feet into the subsurface of Mars and pull behind a cable that surrounds a heat probe to measure the heat flowing from inside the planet.
Scientists expect a dozen or even 100 Marsquakes in the course of the mission, providing data to help them determine the depth, density, and composition of the planet's core, its surrounding rocky crust, and its outermost layer, the crust.
Experts believe that Mars produces earthquakes below 6.0 on the Richter scale.
InSight is not the first attempt to measure the seismic activity of Mars.
The Viking probes of the mid-1970s were also equipped with seismometers, but were attached to the top of the lander, which moved on the shock-built legs in the Martian wind.
Banerdt called these "handicapped experiments" joking: "We did not do seismology on Mars – we made it three meters above Mars."
Apollo missions to the moon also brought seismometers to the lunar surface and discovered thousands of moonquakes and meteorite impacts.
InSight is expected to provide the first meaningful data on internal planetary vibrations outside the Earth.