Introduction. Four choices to transform the business

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the manager has chosen to invest more or less in People and in Technology to design the transformation of his company with a view to performance. Considered obvious, this performance objective will always be present without necessarily being made explicit.
In their time, the conditions of this choice of investment were not always clearly expressed by researchers and practitioners of organizational innovations. Historical hindsight allows us to provide an analysis based on the idea that the leader has of the Person at work.
Historical hindsight also allows us to provide an analysis according to the growth in the degree of autonomy. Depending on the role devolved to the Person by the leader (pure execution, self-organization, autonomy of execution, entrepreneurial autonomy, autonomy of management), we indicate the adoption of the corresponding technical system.— If the leader considers that the competence of the Person is limited to execution, he therefore favors the technical system and chooses a Taylorian or Fordian system of production.
In the days of WF Taylor (1856 – 1915) and H. Ford (1863 – 1947), the conception of the Working Person was subject to standardization, rationalization and normalization.
However, its application is very different, because the object of Taylor is the multifunction manufacturing workshop while that of Ford concerns the assembly line…