8:00 AM 03/11/2018 (updated: 08:28 11/03/2018 ) 32139 125 7th MOSCOW, March 11 (Itar-Tass) – RIA Novosti. According to the norms of Rospotrebnadzor, adults should consume 0.8-1.6 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day. But in the diet of the majority of Russians there are five or even ten times less. RIA Novosti together with the expert figured out why fatty acids are needed and how to fill their lack in the body. Scientists: Products with Omega-3 are useful for children’s body
Fatty acids are organic compounds that participate in many physiological processes of the body. The molecule consists of 18-22 carbon atoms. Several atoms in this chain, starting from the third (if we count from the end that the chemists denote the Greek letter “omega”), contain double bonds.
Omega-3 acids are part of the cell membranes, participate in the biosynthesis of substances and protect cells from oxidative stress. Most of the body produces itself from simpler substances, and only three, just the most important – alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids – we get from the outside, along with the food. Without them, the cells of the body can not function properly.
Omega-3 acids restore the lipid (fatty) layer of cell membranes, which is damaged during the natural life of the body by various harmful agents, primarily free radicals, toxins and heavy metal salts.
In the gastrointestinal tract, omega-3 is absorbed quickly enough through the walls and enters the liver with blood flow, dispersing from there to all organs and tissues. Then most of it is built into the cell membranes, and the rest is consumed in the oxidative processes, that is, it burns in the mitochondria in the synthesis of ATP.
Restoring cell membranes is the most important function of fatty acids. This promotes self-renewal of the inner shell of the arteries and the excretion of cholesterol with bile.
“The fact that food substances affect the prevention and treatment of diseases is considered scientifically proven, but so far very few useful compounds for the body have been studied.The omega-3 fatty acids are a rare exception.Their therapeutic effect on the cardiovascular system is confirmed at the highest level – 1C, “says Alfred Bogdanov, MD, head of the cardiovascular pathology department at the FGBUN Clinic FITs for Nutrition and Biotechnology.
Omega-3 reduces the risk of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, especially cancer of the large intestine. The fact is that the epithelium of the intestine is renewed very quickly, in seven days – almost completely. In actively and constantly dividing cells, the probability of harmful mutations is significantly higher. Omega-3 and other antioxidants build up a barrier in the way of harmful compounds in the cell, thereby preventing the occurrence of cancer.
Fatty acids are also necessary for neurons, since their myelin sheaths transmit impulses along processes that have a fat structure.
“The inhabitants of the coasts, who constantly use fresh fish, get enough acids of the omega-3 family.Many people know the effect of the so-called Mediterranean diet recommended by the International Association of Cardiologists.” The main problem of continental residents is the high cost of seafood, but they can be replaced. food linseed oil (or flax seeds), as they did in pre-revolutionary Russia, “- said the expert.
Scientists found out why olive oil is good for health But only linseed oil is rapidly oxidized. Heating or prolonged contact with air leads to the formation of oxidation products and free radicals. You can not store linseed oil for a long time, even in the refrigerator, and even more so it’s not worth anything to fry on it. It is better to buy it in capsules: to get a daily dose of omega-3, just four grams of quality oil is enough. Flaxseed should also be stored in the refrigerator and eaten as fresh as possible. Help and walnuts: 30 grams give a daily rate of omega-3. But nuts also contain other fatty acids, in particular the omega-6 family. Between them there is competition for various enzymes in the body.
“The recommended ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 acids is one to two or three, which is due to human physiology, the structure of cell membranes.” For the normal functioning of the body, both classes of fatty acids are needed.Russians, like most continental residents, approximately 1:12, that is, omega-3, we get ten times less than we need, “- says the expert.
Fish – an optimal source of omega-3, other fatty acids in it very little. However, there is a special feature here. Those omega-3 acids that are contained in fish do not break down during heat treatment, but they die with repeated freezing. A single shock effect of low temperatures will hardly affect useful compounds.
The most rich in omega-3 is Atlantic salmon, herring, sardines and rainbow trout. On average, one to two grams of important fatty acids are contained in one fish. For a daily dose, it is sufficient to consume only 100-200 grams of quality fish. Scientists: pink salmon with “triple” DNA is as useful as ordinary fish
You can also drink fish oil. But those who suffer from urolithiasis or gall bladder in the stomach, this option is not suitable: fish oil will cause a reduction in the gallbladder, heartburn and other unpleasant consequences. A more expensive but qualitative source of omega-3 acids is biologically active additives.
Of course, there are omega-3s in meat of animals, and even in plant foods. However, in meat there is too much omega-6, and busting with this group of fatty acids is undesirable. As for products of vegetable origin, there is very little omega-3. To ensure a daily rate, you will have to eat more than a kilogram of raspberries. In grain, there are literally tenth and even hundredths of a gram of necessary compounds.
The content of omega-3 fatty acids in different products