The Lyme’s desease It is the disease most commonly disseminated by ticks and is due to four main species of bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia mayonii, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. This disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected black-legged tick, commonly known as “deer tick”. A person is more likely to get Lyme disease if he lives or spends time in densely wooded or grassy areas where the ticks that transmit the disease develop.
The Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary and usually appear in stages. Upon receiving the sting of a tick, a small red lump appears and disappears. However, when you are infected, these signs of infection may appear within a month: Acne . Between 3 and 30 days after an infected tick bite, an expanded red area may appear, which sometimes lightens in the center and forms a target pattern. The skin rash (migratory erythema) slowly expands with the passing of days and can spread up to 12 inches (30 centimeters) in length. Generally, it does not cause itching or pain.
Migratory erythema is one of the specific characteristics of Lyme disease. Some people have this rash on more than one place in the body. Symptoms similar to those of influenza . Fever, chills, fatigue, widespread pain, and headache may occur.
If the Lyme infection is not treated, new signs and symptoms may appear in the weeks or months that follow. Some of them are the following: Migratory erythema that appears in other areas of the body.
Joint pain . Episodes of severe joint pain and swelling that affect the knees, although it can change from one joint to the other.
Neurological problems . Weeks, months or even years after infection, you may have meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, membranes that surround the brain), temporary paralysis of one side of the face (Bell’s palsy), numbness or weakness in the extremities, and muscle movement affected.
Some of the signs and symptoms caused by the bacterium Borrelia mayonii are the following: Nausea and vomiting
Diffuse skin rashes (instead of a single skin rash similar to target shooting frequently associated with Lyme disease)
Several weeks after infection and infrequent may occur: Heart problems, such as irregular heartbeats, which rarely last more than a few days or weeks.
Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis).
In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, transported mainly by black-footed or deer ticks. Ticks are brown and, when they are young, they are usually very small, which makes it almost impossible to detect them. To get Lyme disease, a deer tick must bite you. Bacteria enter the skin through the bite and eventually reach the bloodstream. In most cases, to transmit Lyme disease, a deer tick must be stuck between 36 and 48 hours. If you see an attached tick that is swollen, it probably has been fed enough to transmit the bacteria. Removing the tick as soon as possible can help prevent infection. Risk factor’s
The place where you live or where you go on vacation can affect your chances of getting Lyme disease. In the same way, your profession and the outdoor activities that you enjoy can also do it. The most frequent risk factors for Lyme disease include the following: Spend time in wooded or grassy areas . Deer ticks are more frequent in densely forested regions. Children who spend a lot of time outdoors in these areas are especially exposed. Adults who have outdoor occupations are also at greater risk.
In the first two stages of life, deer ticks feed on mice or other rodents, which are an important reservoir for Lyme disease bacteria. Having the skin exposed. Ticks adhere easily to bare skin. In a heavily vegetated area, long-sleeved clothing and long pants should be worn and pets should not wander between tall grasses and grass.
Do not remove ticks immediately or adequately . Bacteria that come from a tick bite can enter the bloodstream if it stays attached to the skin for 36 to 48 hours or more.
If Lyme disease is not treated, it can cause the following: Chronic inflammation of the joints (Lyme arthritis), especially of the knee
Neurological symptoms, such as facial paralysis and neuropathy
Cognitive defects, such as impaired memory
Irregularities in the heart rhythm
The best way to prevent Lyme disease is to avoid areas where the deer tick lives, especially wooded and dense areas with shrubs and tall grasses. Some simple precautions can be: Cover . In wooded areas or with many pastures, wear closed shoes, long pants tucked into stockings, shirts with long sleeves, hat and gloves. Try to follow the trails and avoid walking through low bushes and tall grasses. Keep the dogs with the leash on.
Use insect repellents Apply insect repellent to the skin with a concentration of 20% or more of N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide , also known as “DEET”, avoiding hands, eyes and mouth. Keep in mind that chemical repellents can be toxic; Therefore, the instructions must be followed carefully. Apply products with permethrin to garments or buy pre-treated garments.
Do your best to eradicate ticks from your garden . The weeds and leaves where the ticks live should be cleaned.
Check and check children and pets for the presence of ticks . Be especially careful after spending time in wooded areas or pastures. Ticks are usually no bigger than the head of a pin, so you may not discover them unless you look carefully.
It is useful to shower immediately upon entering the house . Ticks usually remain on the skin for hours before adhering. Showering and using a cloth with water may remove unattached ticks.
Do not assume that you are immune . You can have Lyme disease more than once.
Remove the tick as soon as possible with a small clamp . Gently grasp the tick near the head or mouth, without squeezing or crushing it, but pulling it firmly and carefully. When removing it, discard and apply antiseptic solution in the area of the bite.
Only a minority of black-legged tick bites cause Lyme disease. The longer the tick remains attached to your skin, the greater the risk that you will contract the disease. It is unlikely that Lyme infection will occur if the tick has been attached for less than 36 to 48 hours. If a patient thinks they have a bite and shows signs and symptoms of Lyme disease (especially in an area where the disease prevails), they should go immediately to a doctor. The treatment is more effective if it starts at the early stage. The doctor should always be consulted even if the signs and symptoms disappear; the absence of symptoms does not mean that the disease is gone. If left untreated, Lyme disease can spread to other parts of the body several months or years after infection and cause arthritis and nervous system problems. Ticks can also transmit other diseases, such as babesiosis or Colorado tick fever. To print