Overview of coronavirus vaccines – eXtra.cz

Vaccination against coronavirus is in full swing in our country. So it is not necessary to get acquainted with the individual vaccines a little closer. In efficient technology and other parameters, they can differ from each other.

Whether you have vaccinations behind you or are just about to do so, be aware of types and efficacies of individual vaccines collected by the Yale Medicine portal will suit you.

Pfizer-BioNTech

December 11, 2020 happened at all the first vaccine against COVID-19which has been certified by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The company reported positive data from clinical trials, which reported that it was up to 95% effective in preventing symptomatic diseases.

They can be vaccinated persons over 12 years of age and vaccinated with two doses over a period of 21 days. Side effects may includeheadache, headache, pain, tiredness or redness and swelling at the injection site,

It is a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine that uses relatively new technology. Unlike vaccines, which produce an attenuated or inactivated germ in the body, the mRNA vaccine provides a small piece of the genetic code from the SARS CoV-2 virus to host cells in the body. In essence, it gives these cells instructions or plans to make copies of spike proteins. The spikes do the work by infiltrating and infecting the host cells. These proteins stimulate the immune response, produce antibodies, and develop memory cells that recognize and respond when the body is infected with a real virus.

Modern

This vaccine was the second approved for use in the United States. He got the necessary certificates around one week after Pfizer. Modern is also an mRNA vaccine that uses the same technology as the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and has the same high efficacy in preventing symptomatic diseases. However, there are two key differences: Moderna vaccine can be transported and stored for a long time at standard temperatures in a freezer and for 30 days under normal refrigeration, which facilitates distribution and storage. Moderna has also been slightly less effective in clinical trials – approximately 86% – in people aged 65 years and older.

It is given in two doses to people over 18 years of age. As with Pfizer, side effects may include chills, headache, pain, tiredness, or redness and swelling at the injection site, which usually disappears within one or two days. The effectiveness of this vaccine is up to 90 percent.

Johnson & Johnson

The vaccine was approved in the United States on February 27, 2021. Subsequently, however, its administration was suspended due to the suspicion of pextremely severe blood clotting disorders in women. After review, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine resumed vaccination.

Compared to Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, this vaccine easier to store (at refrigerator temperature) and requires only one dose, which facilitated distribution and administration. Everyone over the age of 18 can be vaccinated. Side symptoms include únava, fever, injection site pain or myalgia (pain in a muscle or group of muscles) that usually disappears within one or two days. According to a report published in late February, it was noticeably milder side effects than the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. Like previous vaccines, this one works on the principle of mRNA. Its efficiency is up to 86 percent.

Oxford-AstraZeneca

This vaccine differs from some competitors in lower costs – is cheaper per dose and can be stored, transported and handled in normal cooling for at least six months. Some countries temporarily suspended the use of the vaccine in March after a small number of recipients developed blood clots. In April, the EMA concluded that “unusual blood clots with a low platelet count should be rare side effectsWhich may occur within two weeks of receiving the vaccine. While the UK called for further investigation, EMA regulators emphasized that the benefits of the vaccine still outweighed the risks.

People over 18 years of age are vaccinated with two doses. Side effects include pain, burning, redness, itching, swelling or bruising at the injection site, which usually disappears within one or two days. As with Johnson & Johnson, it is a carrier vaccine made from a modified version of a harmless adenovirus. The final product contains a spiked protein found in SARS-CoV-2. When this protein enters the body’s cells, the immune system attaches itself to the defense and creates antibodies and memory cells to protect against the actual SARS-Cov2 infection. The effectiveness of the vaccine is around 76 percent.

Novavax

This vaccine has been shown to be effective not only against COVID-19 but also against mutationswhich have appeared in the United Kingdom and to a lesser extent in South Africa. While other breakthrough vaccines have been either mRNA or vector platforms, Novavax is yet another type called a protein adjuvant. The production is also simpler and fabric can be stored in the refrigerator. Side effects manifest themselves cinjection site tenderness, fatigue, headache or muscle aches.

While other vaccines cause the body’s cells to make parts of the virus that can trigger the immune system, Novavax has a different approach. It contains the top protein of coronavirus itself, but formulated as a nanoparticle that cannot cause disease. Following injection of the vaccine, the immune system stimulates the production of antibodies and the T-cell immune response. The efficiency is around 90 percent. It is given to patients between 18 and 84 years of age in two doses, three weeks in a row.

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