Physical activity starting at age 12 is decreasing with depression symptoms at the age of 18, new research shows.
In the first study to objectively measure physical activity in adolescents, the investigators found that an additional 60 minutes of inactive behavior per day at 12, 14, and 16 were associated with an increase in depression scores of 11.1%, 8. %, and 10.7%, respectively at 18 years.
Conversely, each additional hour of mild activity per day at age 12, 14, and 16 was connected to a decrease of 9.6%, 7.8%, and 11.1%, respectively, on depression scores when measured at 18 years of age.
“We showed that there was a consistent link between passive and depressive behaviors, which were difficult to study. Traditionally, passive behavior is measured using questionnaires, which are often not very reliable,” the investigator and the t PhD candidate Aaron Kandola, University College London, UK said Medscape Medical News.
The use of accelerometers, which record movement automatically, enabled researchers to examine physical activity much more accurately.
The online study was published on 11 February Lancet Psychiatry.
Teenage Depression Rates Rates
The investigators note that there are often signs of depression at adolescence and that they can offer a critical time frame to remove depression. In addition, a recent US study showed that teenage prevalence increased from 8.7% in 2005 to 11.3% in 2014.
While there is increasing evidence suggesting that physical activity may reduce symptoms of depression in clinical and non-clinical populations, the research of young people is rare.
“Much of the research has been done so far among adults,” Kandola said. “But we know that depression and anxiety disorders tend to be earlier than that. And we didn’t know much about the relationship between activity and depression in young people.”
In addition, almost all previous teenage studies have used subjective self-reported actions of physical activity, a tendency to respect passive behavior, and rarely account for intense activities such as walking. .
To gain a more accurate understanding of physical activity in adolescents and the potential link to depressive symptoms when the youth moves into adulthood, the investigators examined a study from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), which followed children. born between April 1991 and December 1991.
Using accelerometers, the investigators objectively measured different types of physical activity at three points during adolescence and then measured depressive symptoms when participants were 18 years of age.
“It is a very important time to look at, as we know that their activity and increasing inactive behavior are reducing as they move through adolescence,” said Kandola.
Little Movement makes Great Difference
The analysis included 4257 adolescents with at least one accelerometer recording and a Clinical Schedule Schedule Revision (CIS-R) depression score at 18 years of age.
Participants spent a speedometer to track their movement for at least 10 hours over three days at age 12 (n = 2486), 14 (n = 1938) and 16 (n = 1220).
Acceleration meters allowed an objective assessment of light physical activity (for example recreation or recreation) and moderate physical activity (such as running or cycling) as well as inactive transport.
The results showed that physical activity between the ages of 12 and 16 decreased across the cohort; this resulted in a reduction in light activity, which ranged from an average of 5 hours and 26 minutes per day to 4 hours 5 minutes a day.
In addition, the investigators found that inactive behavior increased from an average of 7 hours and 10 minutes per day to 8 hours 43 minutes per day.
Depression scores were higher with 18 years with passive behavior increasing by 60 minutes per day at 12 years (incident rate ratio). [IRR], 1.111; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.051 – 1.176); 14 years (IRR, 1.080; 95% CI, 1.012 – 1.152); and 16 years (IRR, 1.107; 95% CI, 1.015 – 1.208).
Conversely, depression scores among 18 year olds were lower for every additional 60 minutes of daily light activity at 12 years (IRR, 0.904; 95% CI, 0.850 – 0.961), 14 years (IRR, 0.922) t 95% CI, 0.857 – 0.992), and 16 years (IRR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.809-0.974).
A good place to start in the classrooms
When the investigators modeled group-based trajectory of participants aged between 12 and 16, they identified three latent sub-groups of inactive transport and activity levels.
As part of this analysis, it was found that adolescent depression was higher with persistent high passive transport (IRR, 1.282; 95% CI, 1.061 – 1.548) and average follow-up behavior (IRR, 1.249; 95%). CI, 1.078 – 1.446) than their counterparts with low persistent low behavior.
Similarly, depression scores were lower among adolescents with high levels of mild activity (IRR, 0.804; 95% CI, 0.652 – 0.990) than among those with low low levels of light activity.
Finally, moderately vigorous physical activity (per daily increase 15 minutes) at age 12 (IRR, 0.910; 95% CI, 0.857 – 0.966) and total physical activity (per 100 counts per minute) by age 12 (IRR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.910 – 0.972) and 14 (IRR, 0.965; 95% CI, 0.932 – 0.999), involving depressive properties.
These findings, which are noted by the investigators, suggest that interventions targeting passive behavior may have important public health benefits during adolescence.
Strategies to increase physical activity should focus more closely on the potential benefits for mental health to improve adherence to young people with low levels of physical activity guidelines.
Kandola suggested that the classroom would be a good place to start.
“In traditional school systems, it is quite easy for teenagers to sit down the day. But there are some easy corrections there,” he said
He suggested “shaping the classroom environment” through regular innovations such as regular desks or scheduled activity breaks during class time.
The Right Move
In escort editing, Karmel W. Choi, PhD, and Jordan W. Smoller, MD, ScD, colleagues in the Department of Psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, note that the results are not bad.
“The good news from this study is that light action – which can have movements as simple as standing, stretching or casual walking – could be an effective strategy to reduce the burden of adolescent depression,” they write.
“As more people move more and are becoming more common, it is worth noting that the optimum intensity (and even duration and types) of physical activity may depend on what we are doing. want to focus on it, “said the editors.
“In fact, a more vibrant activity could be very beneficial for physical outcomes such as bone health or adiposity, but, in the event of depression, lighter activity may be adequate or even better.”
Finally, Choi and Smoller state that public health benefits will only be achieved when behaviors start in line with a body of evidence that supports the many benefits of physical activity.
“They may improve the design of targeted prevention strategies, identifying major drivers of inactive behavior in adolescents, as well as potential sources of light activity in their daily lives.” “At present, the data suggest that a broad spectrum of body movement – including light activity – may come when it comes to depression, the right move.”
Kandola agreed. “It is obvious that there is no one silver pollen here, but it is wonderful that we can do to reduce the risk,” he said.
The UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust funded the collection of data used in the study. Kandola did not disclose any relevant financial relationships. The study author Brendan Stubbs has received consultancy fees from ASICS Europe BV. The editors Choi and Smoller did not disclose any relevant financial relations.
Lancet Psychiatry. Published online February 11, 2020. Full text, Editing
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