Social housing in Spain has different names depending on its degree of protection and its regime (official protection, VPO, VPPA, protected housing, etc.). They are intended to offer a home to those people whose economic situation prevents them from accessing a residence in other conditions. What are they? How do you access them? We tell it in this article.
What is official protection housing or VPO?
Social or protected housing is priced below the market price. They have certain characteristics (size, location, etc.) and in order to access them, applicants have to meet certain requirements. These homes can only be used for habitual and permanent residence, both for rent and for purchase.
Las VPO can be of two types:
Housing of official protection of public promotion
Son those promoted by the state and are awarded to their tenants through a public draw (as long as the requirements are met). In order to be eligible for them, those interested must register in the registers of plaintiffs of the autonomous community that corresponds to them.
Private promotion official protection housing
Privately promoted social housing is built by real estate developers or cooperatives that receive a subsidy from the State to compensate for the limited sale or rental price. As with the others, it is necessary to meet a series of requirements.
Characteristics of social housing
Social housing has characteristics that differentiate it from free housing:
- Habitual and permanent address: VPOs must be the permanent residence of their tenants. If another use is detected, for example, as a second residence, a penalty will be imposed. In other words, tenants may not own another home and must be registered in the autonomous community of the house.
- limited price: Its sale or rental price is set by the State and must always be lower than the free market price, otherwise it would not make sense. To access them, families are required to have a certain level of income in accordance with the IPREM (Public Indicator of Income for Multiple Effects).
- They are not freely available. Official protection housing cannot be transferred until the term stipulated by the corresponding administration has elapsed, which is normally 10 years. On the other hand, it should be noted that the following transfers may have to adjust to the limits imposed by their regulation.
- Tax benefits and aid. Social housing enjoys tax benefits and aid so that they can be accessed (loans, subsidies, etc.).
How to apply for social housing
To apply for social housing you must be registered in the register of VPO claimants of your autonomous community, in order to participate in the public draw. From one community to another the requirements change, so it is convenient to approach the competent body so that it can advise you.
Types of officially protected housing
There are different types of social housing according to their degree of protection and their characteristics:
Housing with basic public protection (VPPB): They are characterized by having a maximum built area of 110 m2, except in cases where they are intended for large families, which may reach up to 150 m2. They have a protection regime of 20 years, although they can be sold earlier if a maximum legal sale price is met.
- Limited Price Homes (VPPL): Their maximum area is 150 m2 and they can only be built on land intended for social housing.
- Social integration housing (VIS): They are homes for people who require social protection. They can never be owned, but they can be leased. Its surface is 130 m2 maximum.
- Housing with public protection for rent (VPPA): To access these homes, a maximum annual rent is required. Its surface is 110 m2. In cases of large families it can reach up to 150 m2. Some of these homes have the option to purchase (VPPA OC).
- Assessed Price Housing (VPT): They are houses initially intended for purchase, although they can be rented later under certain conditions.
Requirements to access social housing
To gain access to any social housing, a series of ‘sine qua non’ requirements are required. If applicants do not meet them, they will not be able to acquire them. The autonomous communities are the ones that set these conditions, which differ according to the type of protection of the houses and the regime (rent, rent option to purchase or purchase).
These are the requirements common that must be met in order to access to social housing under a purchase regime:
- Be of age.
- Be registered in the register of VPO claimants of your autonomous community.
- Members of the applicant household may not own another home.
- Not having been the owner of another officially protected home in the past.
- The home must be the habitual residence.
- Do not exceed the established income limit. Each autonomous community sets it depending on the type of home, but it is usually between 2.5 and 5.5 times the IPREM.
- Those people who have obtained housing aid from the State in the last 10 years will not be able to access it.
Social rental requirements
On the other hand, there are the social rental requirements. In this case, some caustics come into play that make it different from the purchase regime, although it also depends on the autonomous community.
To access a social rental Some of these cases must be met:
- The applicant’s income (along with that of the family unit) they cannot be above three times the IPREM.
- Be of age with Spanish nationality. The permanent residence permit is also valid.
- Not own any home. Both the applicant and his family unit.
- Not receiving any incomeeither for work or benefits.
- Being retired and having debts mortgages that exceed benefits.
- Having minor children or being a single parent family with dependent children.
- be 60 years old.
- It can be requested if in the family unit there is a member with a disability of at least 30%.
- vulnerable people..
- That the family unit has a member who has been victim of gender violence.