The depression has progressed in France between 2010 and 2017, especially among women, the unemployed, students, low income and under 45 years, reports a study of Public Health France published in the Weekly Epidemiological Bulletin (BEH). Tuesday.
From a questionnaire to 25,319 people by telephone and computer (health barometer) the health agency concludes that "in 2017, nearly one in ten adults aged 18 to 75 reported having experienced a depressive episode characterized by had an impact on his usual activities in the last 12 months ".
Depression, to be distinguished from a transient depression
The depressive episode characterized or EDC does not correspond to the "depression" passing that can win everyone, it meets specific criteria such as a period of at least 15 days of sadness or loss of interest associated with at least three secondary factors (decrease or increase in weight, sleep difficulties, morbid thoughts, etc.).
In total, 9.8% of 18-75 year olds experienced such an episode in 2017. "This is two points more compared to 2010, after a period of stability between 2005 and 2010," notes the BEH.
The disorder affects twice as many women (13%) as men (6.4%), a difference that can be explained by the difference in social positions by sex or by the fact that men are less inclined to admit depression.
Those with the lowest incomes are the most at risk, with an increase of 3 points between 2010 and 2017. Depression increases the most among 35-44 year olds (+4.4 points) and students (+4 points).
"In agreement with international studies, it is thus the female sex, the professional inactivity, the low level of income, the ruptures conjugales and the age lower than 45 years which are positively related to the occurrence of a depressive episode" , notes the study.
Increase in support
Depressive disorders are responsible for 35 to 45% of work stoppages, and the BEH has looked at data collected from 14,520 assets.
About 8.2% had a depressive episode, with women still being twice as affected as men (11.4% vs. 5.3%). For men, the rate varies greatly depending on the sector of activity: the most affected are accommodation and food, financial activities and insurance.
For both men and women, having verbal or physical threats increases the risk of depression, as does the fear of losing one's job.
In another study, Public Health France notes an increase in the use of care for anxiety disorders from 2010 to 2014: 1.3 million patients were treated in a facility licensed in psychiatry, an increase of 3.7% in men and 3.6% in women. The care is the highest in terms of population in the northern half of France: Brittany, Normandy, Hauts-de-France and Grand Est.
The Agency points out "the disturbing disengagement of the pharmaceutical industry from mental disorders, while 30% of patients do not respond to antidepressants".