Stroke and heart have the same risk factors which also experience symptoms for a long time and are rarely realized. According to general practitioner Gia Pratama, the two diseases are blood vessel diseases that are blocked or ruptured. The only difference is the location, namely the stroke occurs in a blood vessel in the brain. (Read: This Is a Greater Sin than Adultery)
The causes of broken or blocked blood vessels are almost the same, namely diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stress, and lack of exercise. “Many of these diseases occur due to a lifestyle that is far from healthy. Therefore, disease or stroke symptoms can occur in people aged 40 years. That’s usually because the blood vessels are already brittle due to high blood pressure, ”said Gia.
The obstacle to handling stroke in Indonesia is early detection. One of them, risk factors are not optimal in society. This can be seen from the increase in the prevalence of risk factors and the low achievement of productive age health screening.
In Indonesia, cases of death due to stroke occur due to late handling of cases. And, it happened because the public did not recognize the early signs of attack. In fact, the hospital now has a complete and integrated facility for diagnostic equipment as well as a stroke service and management team with special competences for stroke care.
Doctor Gia also highlighted people who are reluctant to get checked out if they feel unwell. For example, high blood pressure is often called the silent killer. Normal tension is 120/80, if it rises 140/90 what happens is a headache. However, many of the sufferers do not check their tension, instead ignoring it because the pain will soon pass. (Also read: 5 Ways to Maintain Bone Health)
Blood pressure will remain high for a long time if left untreated. Until there is a trigger again it will make the tension rise again, marked by a headache. Blood pressure will continue to rise, but untreated, it can make blood pressure up to 200.
“A blood vessel is like a balloon which if you continue to apply pressure it will burst. If a blood vessel breaks in the leg, it doesn’t really matter because there are still many other blood vessels. Now, if a blood vessel bursts in the brain, it means it is severe and can cause a stroke, even you can causing death, “he explained.
So, checking blood pressure or tension becomes the easiest to do to prevent the risk of more harm. Especially if you already have a history of high blood pressure, it is better to have your own tensimeter to control your blood pressure at any time.
Gia, who also publishes a book About Your Body, wants people to know more about their own bodies. She reminds how powerful the body is. If the body understands, one can be sure a very conscious person is maintaining this sophisticated body.
Another deadly disease is tuberculosis (TB) and is a serious threat in every country. Indonesia ranks third after India and China for the country with the largest TB case burden. This infectious disease is still the highest, even though other types of infectious diseases tend to decrease. (Also read: The rate of domestic violence has decreased because it was not detected due to the pandemic)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria can attack anyone: old, young, male, female, especially of productive age. The sputum particles of people with pulmonary TB come out when coughing, sneezing and talking. The sputum sparks contain bacteria and can float in the air so that other people can breathe.
Imran Pambudi, Head of the TB Sub-Directorate for the Ministry of Health, said that if an infected person has a good immune system, the bacteria is in a latent state and is inactive. As many as 5-10% of infected people have active bacteria which of course cause TB disease.
“It is very rare at the age of children, especially those who have received the BCG vaccine. If a child is infected with TB, there is an entrance door. So, people around the child must be checked,” said Imran.
Although deadly and rapidly contagious, TB can be cured by following regular treatment. Treatment for sensitive TB is the fastest for six months. If it includes drug-resistant TB, the fastest must be ready to take the drug for 9-12 months and the longest can reach 24 months.
“TB treatment is free of charge in public and private services that are registered and in cooperation with the government. Anti-TB drugs provided by the government are available in fixed dose combinations (FDC), not removable drugs, to prevent resistance. However, removable drugs can be given if the patient has complications or allergies, “he explained.
TB generally attacks the lungs, but can also attack other organs such as the lining of the brain, skin, bones, lymph nodes, and others when the TB bacteria leave the lungs through the bloodstream. This condition is called extrapulmonary TB. (Also read: His car was installed with a bomb, Syria’s top cleric died)
The backbone is also an area that is often affected by TB. The reason is, the backbone is very close to the lungs which have been damaged by TB germs first. Bone tuberculosis attacks the spine until it is destroyed, the patient can bend over and become paralyzed.
There are also new challenges related to TB control, TB-HIV co-infection, drug-resistant TB (TB-RO), comorbid TB, TB in children, and other challenges with increasing complexity.
In general, TB is divided into two, namely sensitive TB and TBRO (drug resistant tuberculosis). TBRO is further divided based on how many types of drugs are resistant. Usually the drug is given as much as six drugs. Namely, TBRO Single Drug Resistant (SDR) for patients who are resistant to one type of drug. There is another Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) for two drug resistant patients. Finally, XDR TBRO, means that the patient is resistant to more than two types of drugs.
TBRO exists because the patient does not complete his treatment. “Usually two months after taking the drug the results are good. In fact, it should be continued for up to 6 months. The intermittent medicine is in the third month,” he said.
Other factors that influence are boredom and drug side effects that make people with TB not continue treatment, so that the potential to become TBRO increases. So, it is not surprising that people with TB need assistance other than treatment. This assistance is provided by people who have recovered from TB.
The side effects of TB drugs can range from dizziness, nausea, to hallucinations, including hearing and vision problems. However, the effect of each drug is different. Therefore, before giving drugs, doctors must inform the patient of side effects. (Also read: Covid-19 is five times more deadly than the flu virus)
In fact, in one hospital that is concerned about TB, such as the Friendship Hospital, there is a team of medical and psychological experts who observe possible reactions if a patient takes medication for a long time. The next steps will be adjusted according to the results.
Another disease that is said to kill the sufferer is cancer. Among all cancers, lung cancer is now the number one killer cancer. In Indonesia, 14% of total cancer deaths are caused by lung cancer. In the world, lung cancer is also the most commonly found in men and women, according to 2018 Globocan data.
Evlina Suzanna, a doctor from the Dharmais Cancer Hospital, said that in Indonesia the average life expectancy of lung cancer sufferers is very low, which is only 13 months. This happened because previously there was no standard early detection and no specific clinical symptoms.
Symptoms of lung cancer are not typical, such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath. Anyone can have symptoms like that, as well as other diseases have like this so that general practitioners rarely suspect this is lung cancer. In fact, it is often mistaken for pneumonia, even though it is stage four lung cancer.
Lung cancer is so dangerous because the lungs are made up of many blood vessels. The lungs also pump blood throughout the body so that if there is cancer in the lungs it will certainly spread quickly. “If breast cancer spreads to the lungs it means it is in stage four. Moreover, lung cancer, primarily where other cancers are already at an advanced stage. Lung cancer, although only one centimeter, spreads easily,” said Evlina.
The obstacles faced by lung cancer sufferers are also quite large, namely when taking samples for diagnosis. There is a gold standard diagnostic is not only a dream to determine the stage so that a biopsy or cancer cell samples must be taken. The lungs are internal organs that make it difficult for doctors. Care should be taken if one puncture the lung can be deflated. (Also read: This is the referee who led the El Clasico match)
The doctor for this biopsy is also not only a lung specialist, but an oncologist who specializes in cancer so that he has the expertise for biopsy. The number of tissue taken for the sample must be sufficient because there will be several levels that must be passed. For example, the cellular level then continues the therapy then stops radiation or chemotherapy.
The barrier between the two technologies is also not easy because it enters the gene level of the cell. Therefore, it takes one’s own expertise again to determine the examination. “A biopsy is the most important step after a person is suspected of having cancer. Before entering treatment, there must be a diagnostic tool,” said Evlina.
At this stage, collaboration between doctor and patient is needed because surgery is carried out in a position that is sometimes uncomfortable for the patient. For diagnosis alone, 40 pathologists have been trained in 14 provinces. It also tries to address the diagnostics listed to be given to patients. “So that later on, access to treatment or other genetic studies can be accessed,” continued Evlina.
The Indonesian Cancer Foundation (YKI) DKI Jakarta recorded that every year three cancers diagnosed in new patients are still the same from year to year: breast cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. These three cancers are always increasing every year. Worse, until now 60-70% are found to be in an advanced stage. This is what makes the death rate high.
Cancer in general is a scary thing because it can affect anyone. Not only those who have a history of this disease, but anyone can, depending on their genes are susceptible to certain cancer cells or the term genetic susceptibility. (See video: Hit by a tornado, 109 houses damaged in North Bekasi)
Breast cancer susceptibility can be detected, but other types of cancer can not be detected. Not all types of cancer have their own genetic susceptibility. Everyone is at risk of developing cancer, depending on their lifestyle, only 5% of heredity. “Everyone’s genetics is different, so later which genes in the body are weak at risk. For long-time smokers who don’t have cancer, there is no technology that can show which genes keep their bodies from getting cancer,” said Evlina. (Ananda Nararya)