COVID-19: studies revealed which blood type is more susceptible to severe disease

The main results suggest that people with blood types A, B or AB may be more susceptible to becoming infected with COVID-19 than people with blood type 0 (REUTERS / Marco Bello)

COVID-19 is known to most severely affect people who were not entirely healthy before contracting it and that in addition to advanced age, there are factors such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease that are directly related to symptoms and diagnosis. However, the person’s blood type may play an important role in the onset and outcome of the disease.

And it is that, risk factors alone do not explain the wide variety of symptoms, or why some people get the disease and others do not. Studying the genetics of people most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 could help identify and protect those most at risk, as well as speed up treatment and drug development.

In this context, a person’s blood group could determine the susceptibility to the new disease and the severity of the COVID-19 infection., according to two studies, published in Blood Advances, that suggest that people with type 0 blood they may have a lower risk of infection and a lower chance of serious outcomes, including complications, if they become ill.

The first study, conducted between February 27 and July 30, 2020, revealed that blood type 0 may offer some protection against infection by the new coronavirus. The researchers compared data from the Danish health registry of more than 473,000 people who were tested for COVID-19 with data from a control group of more than 2.2 million people from the general population.

The blood group of a person could determine the susceptibility to the new disease and the severity of the COVID-19 infection (EFE / EPA / LUCA ZENNARO / File)
The blood group of a person could determine the susceptibility to the new disease and the severity of the COVID-19 infection (EFE / EPA / LUCA ZENNARO / File)

The main results suggest that People with blood types A, B, or AB may be more susceptible to becoming infected with COVID-19 than people with blood type 0.

Since blood group distributions vary between ethnic subgroups, the researchers also controlled for ethnicity and established that fewer people with blood type 0 got COVID-19.

The second investigation conducted in Canada revealed that blood groups A and AB are associated with an increased risk of severe clinical outcomes from COVID-19. Additionally, the study noted that people with blood group A or AB appear to exhibit greater severity of the new disease than people with blood group 0 or B.

Researchers examined data from 95 critically ill patients hospitalized in Vancouver and found that patients with blood groups A or AB were more likely to require mechanical ventilation, suggesting that they had higher rates of lung injury from COVID-19. They also noted that this group of patients required dialysis for kidney failure.

The main results suggest that people with blood types A, B or AB may be more susceptible to being infected with COVID-19 than people with blood type 0. (EFE / EPA / CHAMILA KARUNARATHNE / Archive)
The main results suggest that people with blood types A, B or AB may be more susceptible to becoming infected with COVID-19 than people with blood type 0. (EFE / EPA / CHAMILA KARUNARATHNE / Archive)

On the whole, These findings suggest that patients of blood group A or AB may be at increased risk of organ dysfunction or failure due to COVID-19. Furthermore, while people with blood types A and AB stayed in the hospital longer than those with types 0 or B, they were in the intensive care unit (ICU) for a longer average time, which may also indicate a higher severity level of COVID-19.

The truth is that these two studies were not the first to establish a relationship between the blood factor and COVID-19. In fact, vSeveral investigations have analyzed both disease severity and susceptibility and concluded that blood type plays an important role.

In March, another investigation conducted by scientists based in Wuhan – where the now-pandemic outbreak began – and in Shenzhen, China. The sample was based on a universe of 2,000 patients who were treated in both cities, according to the South China Morning Post.

Photograph of blood bags for plasma on Friday, September 4, 2020, in the Hematology area of ​​the Central Military Hospital in Ciudad de M & # 233; xico (M & # 233; xico ).  EFE / Jos & # 233;  M & # 233; ndez
Photograph of blood bags for plasma on Friday, September 4, 2020, in the Hematology area of ​​the Central Military Hospital in Ciudad de M & # 233; xico (M & # 233; xico ). EFE / Jos & # 233; M & # 233; ndez

In this sense, in June, a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine, suggested that People with type A blood are at a higher risk of becoming infected with the coronavirus and developing severe symptoms.

At that time, in dialogue with this medium, the geneticist Jorge Dotto (MN 107,411), one of the leaders in genetics worldwide, explained: “It is clear that the key has to do with the genome. ANDThis has a transcendental role in effecting the response to SARS-CoV-2 disease. We did not understand why some people develop a higher risk of disease than others and this research gave us an answer. The genome studies on which it was based give it a special scientific robustness ”.

That same month, the results of another study by 23andMe, which looked at susceptibility rather than severity of the disease, included 10,000 participants who informed the company that they had COVID-19.

The research found that people with sType 0 blood are 9% to 18% less likely than people with other blood types to have tested positive for the virus. However, there was little difference in susceptibility between other blood types, the study found. When the researchers adjusted the data to account for factors such as age and pre-existing conditions, as well as when they restricted the data to only those with a high probability of exposure, such as healthcare workers, the results were the same.

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